Gowlett Family of Hillingdon Parish, Middlesex,England   

                                                                                                                    Isaac Gowlett [aka Gowlate] 
                                                                                                                 Convict, Shingle Maker
                                                                             Of Parramatta, Sydney Australia, formerly of Uxbridge, Middlesex, England

                                    Spouse:               Mary Osborne [England] - no issue
                                    Relationship 1:  Mary Miller     [Australia] - [Convict] - had issue
                                                                                                Relationship 2:  Mary Stevenson [Australia] - [Convict] - had issue
                                      1774     Isaac Gowlett was baptised Isaac Gowlate on the 13th May 1774, 20 miles West of London,  at
                                                     St. Margaret's Uxbridge, Middlesex, the son of Richard Gowlett [aka Gowlate] & Mary his wife

                                                                                                         click on Image to enlarge.
                                                                                                Source: London Metropolitan Archives.

                                                                Isaac had two elder siblings, Richard[the younger] born in 1769 and a sister Elizabeth born 
                                                                in 1771 and three younger full sisters born; Sarah in baptised in 1776 who died at the age 
                                                                of 16 months, Mary Ann baptised 1779 and Fanny baptised October 1781.
                                                                His mother died, not long following Fanny's birth and his father remarried, two months 
                                                                after the child's Baptism, in December 1781. At this time Isaac was aged seven, brother Richard
                                                                twelve and sisters Elizabeth aged nine, Mary Ann four and Fanny an infant.
                                                                Isaac and his siblings were raised between the Township of Uxbridge and adjacent Hillingdon,
                                                                his father a labourer as was his father before him.  Uxbridge itself was situated on the main 
                                                                Western Arterial Road to London alongside the River Colne, on which bank hosted the ancient
                                                                Hillingdon Manor a familiar icon for the Gowlett children, much similar to the Scene Depicted
                                                                on the left panel of this page.
                                                                Isaac's Proven Lineage dates back to his great grandfather William Gowlett [c.1696-1768] 

                                                                Isaac was eighteen when his elder sister Elizabeth married James Bryant in 1791.
                                                                His brother Richard married the following year.   See previous Generation.

                                      1795 Marriage;
                                                                At the age of twenty-one Isaac Gowlett married nineteen-year-old Mary Osborne
                                                                St. John’s Hillingdon 30th August 1795.  The ill fated couple were only married a few months  
                                                                when a series of events transpired that were to change their lives forever. 
                              The 'Crime' & Trial
                                   Excerpt from the Biography of his father, Richard Gowlett.

Possibly pre-arranged, in November that year Isaac, was with his brother-in-law James Bryant  
by the old milestone on Hillingdon Hill where they met a man selling a sheep. Witnessed by 
James, Isaac bought the ewe for 3½ Crowns and upon returning home he turned it out at 
Uxbridge Moor.  

About ten weeks later found the sheep was found to be heavy with lamb and set out to sell it to 
the local butcher, William Read whose shop lay near Hillingdon Village.
On the 12th February 1796 Isaac was coming from Uxbridge Moor as they arranged to meet a 
half-way point at Cowley Hill just left of Hillingdon Village. Leading the sheep over the Moor,  
the pregnant ewe may have been slow, he then placed the ewe upon his shoulders and 
continued the journey when he was seen from about 40 or 50 feet  by Stephen Ody, the bailiff
for Squire Higginson, the Squire owning a farm near  Iver about 2.4 miles from Uxbridge.  
Isaac decided to divert to another route, through a shallow lake and over a bridge, cutting 
through the fields. After meeting William Read at Cowley’s Hill the two negotiated for some 
time and eventually a price of 16s.6d. was settled.  
Isaac then carried the sheep to William’s shop, William being an elderly man. 

Several hours later it was discovered that Stephen Ody had raised an alarm and swore that he
had seen on the shoulder of the sheep that Isaac was carrying, markings familiar to that of a
farmer  who lived at nearby Iver.  It was found that the farmer, Henry Weatherby was indeed
missing ‘two’ sheep from his flock. Subsequently Isaac was arrested and accused of the theft 
of one of the sheep and William Read for receiving goods.   
Isaac and William were taken to Newgate Prison, adjoining the Old Bailey in London to await

On the 6th April 1796 Isaac stood before the Magistrates at The Old Bailey at London. 
The Gowlett Family had employed the services of Mr. Alley a Defense Lawyer. During the 
Trial Mr. Alley repeatedly directed to Stephen Ody’s his testimony regarding him identifying
the markings on the sheep at such a distance, considering the ewe was said to have been very
dirty.   Mr. Alley also drew the attention of the Court to his doubts on the evidence by asking
Stephen Ody if he was aware of the newly instated ‘substantial reward’ offered for 
prosecuting sheep thieves. 
The ewe was attested to be worth 20 shillings, although Isaac's brother-in-law James Bryant 
took the stand in Isaac’s Defense, protesting his innocence in that he attested that he was 
present when Isaac purchased the sheep, but because the previous owner could not be 
identified, Isaac’s ownership of the ewe could not be proven. Both the Accused were convicted.
William Read received a sentence of 14 years Transportation and Isaac was sentenced to Death.
Isaac's Full Trial - Original & Transcription
The Courtrooms were joined to Newport Goal by a long underground corridor.  Within this 
corridor there was other narrow staircase where at the top of  which was mounted an open Bible.
This led to an open Courtyard where stood the Gallows.  Following the Verdict Isaac was led 
back to his cell at Newport Goal, passing the ominous small stairway, where he was shackled 
and left to await his fate.
                                                               A scene at Newgate Goal
Newgate Prison is historically said to have been overcrowded and disease ridden and the 
jailor’s favours & better cell accommodation could be bought for a price. Prostitution was 
rampant, cheap gin was made and sold to the inmates.  Due to the unsanitary conditions 
many outbreaks of Typhus or ‘Goal Fever’ were reported.  However the prisoners were 
allowed visitations by their families.

Isaacs conviction was recorded in seven London Newspapers from the 7th April and his 
Pardon was equally recorded from May 20th 1796.



Isaac left England per the Convict Transport 'Ganges' around December 1796
 bound for the Colony of New South Wales at Sydney Cove. He would never again
see his family, his bride or his Motherland.

              1796    Standards for Convict Transportation had improved greatly since the arrival of the notorious second fleet at
                                                 Sydney Cove in 1790.  The acceptance of dead, half dead, injured or starving convicts was no longer tolerated by
                                                 the British Government. Certain reputable persons were appointed the duty of inspecting the ships used by 
                                                 Private Charter, thus ensuring the well being and safe arrival of healthy convicts for use in the New Settlement. 
                                                 The newly built Ship the ‘Ganges’ was one of the first inspected by Sir James Fitzpatrick in his new 
                                                 Appointment.  He ordered the ship be modified with certain structural changes such as better ventilation. 
                                                 Water  purifiers were to be ordered and also fumigation equipment.  He also required medicines to be placed
                                                  onboard.  When all was prepared, Isaac and his fellow prisoners were taken to Plymouth, where still in their
                                                  chains they were placed in longboats and transported to the waiting Hull of the 'Ganges' resting in mid harbour.

                                                                   Scene of Convicts loaded into a Hulk    Typical Convict Communal Cells with a Hulk
                                      1797   The ‘Ganges left  Plymouth around Christmas 1796 with 203 male convicts on board and although the Ship’s
                                                 owners had applied to have the number increased by half again, the petition was refused and the prisoners
                                                 were not overly overcrowded during the voyage.  However in spite of all her modifications there was an outbreak
                                                 of Scurvy on route and thought to be due to the inexperience of the ship’s young surgeon and many of the 
                                                 convicts were still suffering from the illness when they reached Sydney Cove on the 2nd June 1797.
                                                Isaac’s vision of  his new home were scenes possibly much different than he had imagined, although Sydney Town
                                                was still only in its infancy, established only seven years before in 1788 [First Fleet], the small Colony was well
                                                established boasting their own handwritten newspaper, a little brick hospital which once stood at the corner of  
                                                what is now Argyle Street in the ‘The Rocks’ area near Circular Quay, Sydney. 

                                               Isaac was by now 22 years old.  He was likely sent to Parramatta Goal to await assignment to one of the farming 
                                               districts at Parramatta.  The Prison building is described containing three rooms; two for males and one 
                                               (in a separate yard) for females.  The rooms for males did not afford enough space for more than sixty yet more 
                                              than one hundred were crowded into each of them.  These conditions endured for over forty years.

                                     1800/2 Three years later the Muster of 1800-02 (S/AD191) describes Isaac in the employment of Mr. Neil at Parramatta.
                                              By this time Isaac's chains were long gone and he had already been granted a ‘Ticket Of Leave’* for good behavior.
                                              It is considered that it was here that he learnt the trade of 'Shingle Maker'  working in the dense bush land in 
                                              the area, cutting down trees for the purpose of making roof shingles, a trade in which he became very respected. 
                                              Many of the landowners in Parramatta were Pardoned Convicts from this First Fleet.  Many convicts later became
                                              very wealthy, a far better fate than ever could have afforded them if they had remained in the Motherland.
                                                          * Ticket of Leave holders still required passes or passports to travel from one district to another, but not for travel
                                                              within the district stated on their Ticket. They were able to go into business or farm or choose their own employer. 
                                                              However, their district of residence was no longer their own choice, but that of the Bench of Magistrates 
                                                              recommending the indulgence. The incentive of a Ticket of Leave to encourage good conduct and maintain control 
                                                              of assigned servants is obvious. Ticket of Leave holders were required by Order to produce their Certificates to 
                                                              prospective employers. For such an order to be necessary indicates that  prisoners were under little supervision. 
                                                              The convicts lived out of barracks, and came to work in the mornings when the bell rang. Even after the Barracks 
                                                              were completed, well behaved convicts, and those with families were still permitted to live out of barracks and 
                                                              lodge in the town. Convicts had their ‘own time’ with which to do as they pleased, taking on extra work for 
                                                              added income if they chose.  However It was 'no bed of roses' there was still a stigma attached to their status.]
                                                  Meanwhile in Uxbridge, Isaac's young bride did not fare well after his departure from England. 

                                                   She appears to have been admitted to the Poor House at Uxbridge She seems to have run away and sought 
                                                   refuge at the Poorhouse at Leighton Buzzard 27 miles NNW of Uxbridge.  The Churchwardens and Overseers
                                                   at Uxbridge, William Mead and E. Wodley appear extremely anxious for her to return and made an Order to wit;
                                                           Bedfordshire: Quarter Sessions Catalogue Ref. QS.  Date: 1801.
                                                           Ref: QSR/18/1801/5:  National Archives, Kew.  Removal orders:
                                                           Mary wife of Isaac Gowlett – Leighton B. [Buzzard] to Uxbridge, Middlesex. 
                                                           Transcript in full kindly provided by Bedfordshire Family History;
                      '                            Bedfordshire (to wit). To the Churchwardens and Overseers of the Poor of the parish of Leighton Bussard 
                                                   in the County of Bedford and to the Churchwardens and Overseers of the Poor of the parish of Uxbridge 
                                                   in the County of Middlesex.
                                                   Whereas complaint hath been made unto us, two of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace acting in and for the 
                                                   County of Bedford aforesaid, (one whereof being of the Quorum) by the Churchwardens and Overseers of 
                                                   the Poor of the said parish of Leighton Bussard that Mary the wife of Isaac Gowlett hath lately intruded, 
                                                   and came into the said parish of Leighton Bussard and hath actually become chargeable to the same: 

                                                   we the justices upon examination of the Premises upon oath, and other circumstances, do adjudge the place
                                                   of the last legal settlement of the said Mary the wife of the said Isaac Gowlett to be in the parish of Uxbridge 
                                                   aforesaid in the County of   Middlesex.

                                                  These are therefore in his Majesty's Name, to require you, the said Churchwardens and Overseers of the Poor 
                                                  of the said parish of Leighton Bussard on sight thereof, to remove and convey the said Mary the wife of the said
                                                  Isaac Gowlett from and out of your said parish of Leighton Bussard to the said parish of Uxbridge and here 
                                                  deliver unto the Churchwardens and Overseers of the Poor there, or to some or one of them, together with 
                                                  this our  order, or a true copy hereof, who are hereby required to receive and provide for her according to law. 
                                                  Given under our Hands and Seals this 9th Day of February in the year of our lord 1801.
                                                  Signed Wm Mead and E Wodley'. 

                                                          Looking at other Poor House Documents for many years it would be more likely that Uxbridge Poor House 
                                                          would have been delighted to have one less for the Parish to support.  Further, the Acceptance of Mary by
                                                          the Overseers at Leighton Bussard would have to have had good reason as it was their Parish who they have 
                                                          agreed to shelter and provide for her.  The Uxbridge Overseers are extreme and unusually adamant in their
                                                           'not request ' but 'Demand' to have Mary sent back to them.  
                                                          With the premature death of his sister Elizabeth Bryant in 1801, leaving two young children, one an infant and
                                                          his brother by now having had six children to support, there can be no doubt that Isaac's young wife Mary
                                                          was in Peril.
                                                   It is doubtful that Isaac ever knew of his sister's untimely death or the dilemma, which faced his young wife. 

                                                                      Mary Miller
                                             Mary's Trial, the birth of Isaac's son, the Tragic Death of Isaac's Son

                                     1802/3    During this time Isaac met a young Convict girl by the name of Mary Miller.  Mary Miller was a 19year old 
                                                    English girl who arrived in the Colony in 1802, per 'Speedy' convicted at the Old Bailey at the age of 16, 
                                                    accused of  stealing a piece of  paper that she had picked up in a London Street. 
                                                    Mary's Trial is transcribed:  URL: http://www.hrionline.ac.uk/oldbailey/html_units/1790s/t17990619-6.html

                                     1804       Although ten years her senior and both still serving their sentences, Mary lived with Isaac at Kissing Point, 
                                                    NSW where she bore him a son baptised Isaac Gowlett 16th March 1804. The Parish Records show his father
                                                    as Isaac Gowlett and Mary Miller. 
                                                     Kindly submitted by LW from NSW Libraries [Early BDM Reels 1788-c.1856 are available at many Local Libraries] 
                                                     Isaac was by now thirty and Mary twenty-one.

                                                     With barely time to see his young son through his toddler milestones when Mary Miller was assigned as a 
                                                     servant at a nearby farm at Windsor and leaving Isaac she took their young son with her. 
                                     1805/6    The Muster of  1805-06 (S/AD1748) shows Isaac living alone in Parramatta and recorded as 'not on Stores’ 
                                                    meaning he was working and did not require subsistence from the Colony.  He lived and worked not far from
                                                    the Windsor area and as the years passed there is evidence to suggest that Isaac and his son had contact.

                                     1814      Ten years later on the 31st January 1814 Isaac was granted a Conditional Pardon, to be reviewed in a further
                                                    ten years.  He was now free to work in any capacity of his choosing and have all the privileges of a ‘Free Man’.

                                                    Note Columns:  Date of Issue [31st Oct. 1814], Name, per ship: Ganges [do], Arrival: 1797 [do], Place & Date
                                                             of Trial: [London, Middlesex, 11th May 1796], Sentence: Life [do], Year of Birth: [no details], 
                                                             Height - Feet: [5], Height - inches: [8], Complexion: [[illegible]pale], Hair: [Brown], Eyes: [Hazel]
                                                          Left side of Book;
                                                          Right side of Book.
                                                          Kindly submitted by LW 
                                                    [see note on the original record re a duplicate being issued to Isaac in 1824, the original destroyed in Fire]

                                                    For what reason, he did not go to Mary who was certainly ‘free’ herself at this time having 
                                                    completed her seven-year sentence. 
                                                    Mary Miller may have married Windsor farmer John Rice, a former ex-convict in November 1814.

                                    1814       Just before Christmas Day, on the 20th December 1814 young Isaac's body was found, likely in the Parramatta
                                                    River. He was buried at Windsor on the 22nd December 1814, Recorded age 11 years. Cause of death noted in 
                                                    the Parish Register:  'Drowned'.

                                                    Note: the adjacent page gives cause of death but unfortunately the scanned copy was mislaid. 
                                                    Can be found on the early NSW BDM reels at most Major Local Libraries. 
                                    1815      Following the death of his son,  Isaac had moved to Clunes on the far North Coast of NSW near Lismore.  
                                                  He was by then working in the area as an Overseer of the shingle splitters. On the 20th November that year he 
                                                  was called to an Inquest into the death of one of his fellow workmen, one Michael Gillan.
                                                                                Inquest of Michael Gillan - 10th November 1815
                                                                                   Ref: 4/1819 pp227 - 8 Reel 198 - NSW Libraries.
                                                                                   Transcription submitted by LW.

                                                                 Daniel Deering Matthew residing at Clunes, duly being sworn.

                                                                 Disposes that he saw the deceased on Saturday morning the 18th Inst. 
                                                                 Witness asked him to come to work, deceased said he was very ill and
                                                                 had been for some time.  He was coming over tomorrow to ask witness 
                                                                 if he could give him something that would do him good.  
                                                                 Witness said he could, the deceased then came instead in the evening
                                                                 in the company with a man of the name Isaac Gowlett.
                                                                 Witness then gave the deceased som pills...... and directed him to take
                                                                 one three times a day and if that did not make him...... he ought to 
                                                                 have the blisteron his shin ...... the deceased then went home.
                                                                 Q:  What state did the deceased appear in when he applied to you? 
                                                                 He complained of violent pain between his breasts, shortening of 
                                                                 breath, sickly couch.  His bodily health very in every other way.
                                                                 Daniel Deering Matthews [signed].
                                                                 Isaac Gowlett, overseer, of the Shingle Splitters Lane, duly being sworn.
                                                                 Disposes that on Saturday the 18th Inst. consented to company with the
                                                                 deceased to go to Mr. Matthews, when the deceased sat down a great
                                                                 number of times and on getting to Mr. Matthews' - Mr. Matthews asked
                                                                 the deceased how he was, the deceased replied he was very ill, 
                                                                 Mr. Matthews then gave the deceased some pills, deceased asked 
                                                                 Mr. Matthews if he might take an egg.  Witness and the deceased then
                                                                 went home.
                                                                 Mark of Isaac Gowlett. 
                                                                 Major West - Assistant Surgeon. Disposes that being duly sworn, 
                                                                 having carefully examined the body of the deceased - Michael Gillan
                                                                 is of the opinion that he died of viscera inflammation.
                                                                 [Signed] Major West, Assistant Surgeon.  

                                                                 NOTE:  The Assistant Surgeon, Major West arrived at Sydney Cove as the Chief Surgeon aboard
                                                                                the 'Francis & Eliza' earlier that year.   Aboard the same vessel was convict Mary Stevens, 
                                                                                the future mother of Isaac's three daughters yet to be born.  The voyage was a harrowing one. 

                                        It was not long after the Inquest that Isaac, by now aged forty-one returned to Parramatta and formed a relationship
                                        with twenty-one year old Irish Convict, Mary Ann Stevenson.   

                                                      Mary Ann Stevenson [aka Mary Ann Stevens]
                                                                                            Mary's Conviction, Mary leaving Cork, Ireland, the Voyage, 
                                                                                                                 the birth of Isaac's daughters
                                     c.1816   By 1816 Isaac was now aged forty-two and it was around this time that he came to know a young twenty-one 
                                                   year-old Irish girl by the name of Mary Stevens.
                                                                     Mary Stevenson arrived in the Colony aboard the ship  ‘Francis & Eliza’ as a Irish Convict in 1815.  
                                                                     The Ship's indents record shows that she was tried at the ‘Four Courts’ in Dublin in October, 1813 
                                                                     where at the age of eighteen, she was convicted and sentenced to 7 years transportation.   The indents
                                                                     further record her birth date given as 1794, previously a Servant from Dublin and noted with brown 
                                                                     hair, hazel eyes and of 'ruddy complexion' [rosy cheeks]. It was also noted that she had used the name 
                                                                     ‘Smith’ as an alias.
                                                                     Nothing is known of her early life or her Crime [All Irish convict records and census material were 
                                                                     destroyed in the fire at the Four Courts in Dublin in 1920].
                                                                                            As her Ship’s Record has no reference to her being a Political Offender i.e.  ‘Rebel’ 
                                                                                            or other crimes which were prone to heavier penalties, her relatively mild sentence 
                                                                                            would probably indicate the common crime of petty 'Theft'. 
                                                                      From the time of her Trial at Dublin to her transportation took two years, this interim period 
                                                                      was very probably spent in the Dublin Goal where she would have been put to work scrubbing, 
                                                                      cleaning and other menial tasks.  The prisoners there were well treated in Ireland. 
                                                                     When the time came for Mary’s transportation documents show that the usual practice was for 
                                                                      the Sheriff to gather the selected prisoners to a 'Holding' in Dublin, where she like the other 
                                                                      convicts were shaved, bathed, clothed and then examined by a doctor.  Their fitness confirmed
                                                                      they were then shipped to Cork to board the convict transport at Cobh.
                                                                      It was at Cork, just prior to embarking that Mary and the other prisoners received a second 
                                                                      examination by an eminent Physician, 

                                                                                            'Lest any should be afflicted with acute disease, or infectious disorder 
                                                                                             or such debility that would endanger  life.'   

                                                                     It was the duty of the Physician at Cork to see that the prisoners were examined, clothed, 
                                                                     cleansed and when he was satisfied these requirements had been met, they were again 
                                                                     lined up for selection, 

                                                                                            'that none unfit by age or infirmity should proceed on the voyage'  
                                                                     [Report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons on Transportation dated  1812 Appendix 38].
                                                                    Only the most youthful of females were chosen first and they then took their place when drawn 
                                                                    from the lines.  They then received two full selections of quality clothing, provisions of tea and 
                                                                    sugar enough for the  journey, which was allowed only to the women.   

                                                                    The closing pages of the document reads 

                                                                                           “The good effects of this compassionate consideration of those unfortunate
                                                                                              exiles, are exemplified at the termination of the voyage, not more in the 
                                                                                              general good health in which the Irish Convicts are landed, than in the 
                                                                                              superior condition of their clothing, stores &c.”

                                                                                         Mary's Voyage to the New Colony
                                                            Mary's journey from Ireland was a harrowing one, history records that the Sloop “Francis and  Eliza”, 
                                                            departed Cork on the 15th December 1814 carrying 54 Irish male convicts and 70 females in convoy
                                                            with the ‘Canada’.  The Ship’s Master, Captain Harrison was a good and fair man and the Ship’s 
                                                            surgeon Major West  equally so. 

                                                           The convoy went into the New Year untroubled until on the the 4th February 1815 two months into 
                                                           their journey an awesome sight loomed on the horizon.  With the 'Jolly Roger' flying high the ship 
                                                           moved alongside the “Francis &  Eliza” and although 22 of the guns on the Pirate Ship were not all 
                                                           mounted they still posed a formidable threat to the two defenseless sloops.  As they neared the side 
                                                           of the ‘Francis & Eliza’ the ‘Canada’ took flight, unable to help and fearing for the safety of their 
                                                           cargo, made good her escape.

                                                           In fear the laggards would cause injury to his crew and his charges the good Captain boarded the 
                                                           Pirate Ship at the request of his captor, the New York Privateer Captain Champlain.  It was several
                                                           hours before the Captain was seen again.  When he returned his private possessions were gone. 

                                                           During this time many of the 166 pirate crew had already boarded the hapless ship.  Major West was
                                                           relieved of over a thousand pounds together with most of his wearing apparel and they then began 
                                                           ransacking  the stores, stripping the ship of it's instruments, documents, the ship’s medicine chest 
                                                           and all the ammunition on board.  They also liberated all the convicts from their restraints.
                                                          The Pirates then departed leaving the ‘Francis & Eliza’, Officers, her crew and the ‘freed’ prisoners 
                                                          to their fate on the open seas. When the craft resumed the voyage the crew and some of the Officers 
                                                          showed little respect towards the good Captain.  They were later reported ever drunk and insubordinate.
                                                          The prisoners remained unrestrained and seeing the plight of the good Captain they rallied and in an
                                                          unprecedented move and began to assume the duties of the crew. 
                                                          It was during this incident that Mary conceived a child.

                                                          Arriving at Sydney Cove on the 8th August 1815.  
                                                          The “Sydney  Gazette” dated 19th August 1815 reports about the voyage of the 'Francis & Eliza';

                                                          “......  On arrival at Santa Cruz the troublesome men were removed and the ship continued its journey
                                                            under the maintenance of its convict crew.   The convicts were not submitted to the usual restraints and
                                                            performed duties of the vessel in an exemplatory manner replacing an unruly and insubordinate crew.” 

                                                           After writing a full report to the Governor [NSW State Archives], Captain Harrison left Sydney Cove not
                                                           long after arrival to resume his duties.  The Ship’s surgeon Major West remained in the Colony where
                                                           he was well respected.  He was Assistant Surgeon in the Inquest of Michael Gillan in Clunes where
                                                           Isaac gave evidence that day.  He monitored the Orphanage at Parramatta where Isaac and Mary’s 
                                                           daughters were admitted and conducted an inspection of the establishment and ordered many 
                                                           improvements to ensure the comfort and care of all the children in residence.    
                                                           There are many documents relating to him in the 'Colonial Secretary Papers: 
                                                           URL: http://www.records.nsw.gov.au/indexes/colsec/w/F59c_we-14.htm#P5663_214532
                                                          On arrival Mary was seven months pregnant and her hair had by now grown to a reasonable length. 
                                                          The efforts of the Irish prisoners en route brought them little in favours when they arrived at Sydney Cove.
                                                          The colony was only just recovering from the Irish upsurges only a few years beforehand an almost repugnant
                                                          attitude toward the Irish was still evident.  As a consequence all the compliment of female convicts aboard 
                                                          were sent to the Female Factory at Parramatta.

                                                          The Female Factory was built in 1804 for the manufacture of wool products fed by the sheep industry in 
                                                          the area. The air in the Factory was thick with fibers, hot and uncomfortable for the workers and in Sydney
                                                          a place of correction where troublesome female convicts in the Colony were sent.
                                                          Their accommodation was very basic consisting of a single long room with a fireplace at one end for the
                                                           women to cook and they slept on the piles of wool.  The women and girls made rope, span & carded wool.
                                                           It was here two months after her arrival Mary gave birth to a daughter, Mary Ann. 

                                                           The Factory was also used for Gentlemen to select servants for their household and where free men could  
                                                           go to choose a wife.  When the men came and a women selected, she was offered an opportunity to meet him.  
                                                           If  both agreed the couple would leave immediately.

                                               Isaac had by now moved back to the Parramatta region the year following the previously mentioned Inquest at 
                                               Clunes in 1815.   It was around this time that he took into his house the twenty-one-year old Mary 
                                               Steven [a Catholic*] and her eighteen-month old daughter Mary Ann. 
                                                      *In these days of the Colony many Catholic priests were known to deny the Sacrament of Marriage to Convict women
                                                        although they would baptize their children as they were considered to be an innocent party.  
                                                        Many Catholic girls particularly Irish Catholics preferred to 'live in sin’ rather than to marry in a Church of another Faith.]

                                                       Fanny 'Adale' Gowlett born c. 1818.
                                                       Sarah Gowlett baptised Sarah Stevenson, 1st January 1823 at Parramatta.
                                                       Maria Gowlett baptised 3 August 1823 at St.Matthews, Sydney - parents 'Mary Stevens & Isaac Gowlett, woodcutter'
                                                       Noted 'born 1st September 1821 at Parramatta.

                                                       There has always been a difference of opinion within the family as to which of the two younger girls was 
                                                       born first.  The order above is based on the scenario that when their mother deserted Isaac and her daughters
                                                       Fanny and Sarah in 1823, she would have been unlikely to have left him with a suckling infant.     
                                     1818   By 1818 Mary Ann gave birth to a daughter, Fanny [aka Adale*].
                                                       * Always recorded as 'Fanny' Gowlett  [Orphanage/Marriage/Death] according to the writer's Family per her daughter
                                                          Charlotte Hamilton, she was born Adale Gowlett.  The name 'Fanny' was a pet name given by her father Isaac, 
                                                          assumedly the namesake of his sister Fanny in England. A Testimonial to this is that recent contact with 
                                                          the descendants of Charlotte's sisters had evidence of variations of the name 'Adale' in their families, which was 
                                                          unexplained until contact.  The name 'Adale' does not appear through past generations of the Gowlett's Family and 
                                                          is considered to be associated with Mary Ann Stevens]. Fanny's Baptism has not been found to date.  

              1821     The family lived in the Kissing Point area and Mary’s eldest daughter Mary Ann would have been four and 
                                                   six years old respectively when her two little half sisters were born.  It was soon after Sarah’s birth that Mary Ann
                                                   fell pregnant again.  Isaac’s health began to fail and by early 1821 the couple had been together for five years. 
                                                   Isaac was by this time forty-seven, Mary Ann twenty-seven and seeing Isaac’s health deteriorating, she began to 
                                                   weave plans to leave him when her pregnancy came to term.
                                                   A daughter Maria Gowlett was born on the 1st September 1821. 

                                     1821     Two months after the birth of Maria, Mary Ann applied to have her eldest daughter Mary Ann to be admitted to 
                                                   the new Female Orphanage at Parramatta on the on the 14th November 1821, applying under the name of 
                                                   Mary Stevens.  This first Request was denied as follows; 

                                                             “Resolved:  that they are not proper  objects.” [meaning insufficient or inadequate reasons].
                                                               NSW State Records.

                                     1822     Three months later on the 13th February 1822 Mary made the same appeal, under the name Mary Stevenson. 
                                                  This time her daughter Mary Ann was accepted.     
                                                  Transcription from the Colonial Secretary Papers;
                                                  Recorded:         “Mary Stevenson applied on behalf of her daughter Mary Ann, the father having died on his 
                                                                               passage home being a sailor on board the “Francis & Eliza” in which Ship she came.”
                                                  Resolved that:  “In consideration of the helpless state of the applicant, having three children by another man, 
                                                                               who is sick, the child be admitted.  
                                                 The earliest surviving records at the Orphanage date back to 1824 - details of Mary Ann’s admission into the
                                                               Orphanage were not found. 
                                     1823     Mary Ann took her infant daughter Maria, still suckling, leaving Fanny and Sarah with Isaac, and went to the
                                                  home of Thomas Gilberthorpe at Windsor taking employment as his servant and housekeeper. 
                                                  Thomas Gilberthorpe was forty years her senior and although previously a convict himself, was by now a 
                                                  prosperous farmer.
                                                  The 1823 Muster shows that Mary Ann was living with a Thomas Gilberthorpe as a servant and Maria was 
                                                  with her.  Another child is shown with the notation ‘child of Thomas Gilberthorpe’. An investigation of the 
                                                   NSW Birth, Deaths & Marriages shows that eventually Mary Ann bore Thomas three sons.
                                     1823     Meanwhile Isaac was ill and struggling to care for his little daughters.  The 1823 muster records him not 
                                                  working and that he had assumed home duties. 
                                                  [There appears to be a discrepancy regarding the ages of his daughters!] 
                                                   Kindly Submitted by LW.

                                                  It was at this time that both the younger children were baptised separately.
                                     1823     Sarah Gowlett was baptised Sarah Stephenson on 1st January 1823 at St. Johns Parramatta.

                                     1823      Maria Gowlet was christened 3 August 1823 at St.Matthews - parents 'Mary Stevens & Isaac Gowlett, woodcutter'
                                                    - her birth was also recorded 1st September 1821 at Parramatta. 

                                     1824     In 1824 Isaac was recorded requesting a copy of his 'Conditional Pardon' the original, Isaac reported having been
                                                  destroyed by fire, noted on the original indents.  Copy above see Timeline 1814. 
                                     1826     By mid 1826 Isaac was resumed work although concerned finding it difficult to juggle work and the duties of a 
                                                  single parent, his daughters attended school in the daytime.  His health continuing to fail Isaac reluctantly
                                                  begins arrangements for his two daughter's admission to the Orphanage at Parramatta.  
                                                 The Orphanage at Parramatta had been built just a few years before his step daughter Mary Ann was admitted.  
                                                 Originally intended for female children only, here the girls would be able to continue their  education as 
                                                 reading and writing was part of the Curriculum.  They would also be taught needlework, cooking and domestic
                                                 duties.  Around the age of twelve they would be allocated to families.
                                      1826   On the 4th September 1826  Isaac wrote a letter to the Female Orphanage at Parramatta;
                                                 [It is assumed that the letter may have been written by someone else considering that Isaac could not sign 
                                                  his name at the Inquest of Michael Gillan in 1815, however he may have learnt literacy skills in the interim]
                                                     Field of Mars 4th Sept. 1826
                                                     Rev. Sir,          I most humbly beg your leave to solicit your favour, of taking my two female children 
                                                                              into the Orphan School, the eldest is seven years old, the youngest five, being a 
                                                                              laboring man and earning my living by splitting timber in the woods when they leave
                                                                              school there is no one to take care of them until my return in the evening:  
                                                                              the mother of them left me when they were very young and I have hitherto discharged
                                                                              my duty towards them, as well as lay in my power and have kept them constant at school, 
                                                                              but for my ill state of health, am prevented from doing as well by them, as I could wish.
                                                                              I am Rev. Sir 
                                                                              Your most humble servant
                                                                              Isaac Gowlett
                                                         Note:  The smudge mark at mid bottom of the page is clearly a thumb print.  
                                                                   The identical thumb print is also on the envelope.
                                                                   The envelope was addressed to: Rev. Mr. Keane, Orphanage House, at Parramatta.
                     Isaac’s Petition was granted and the records show that Fanny and Sarah were admitted 
                                                        into the Orphanage three weeks later on the 23rd September 1826.

                                           Orphanage Parramatta Original Record - Left Page [NSW State Records]
                                           Orphanage Parramatta Original Record - Right Page [NSW State Records]
                                           NOTE:  Fanny was later assigned to A.E. Hayes - there was no assignment detail for Sarah. 

                                      1827        Isaac died ten months later.  He was buried at the Field of Mars Cemetery in Sydney’s Northern Suburbs 
                                                       on the 13th July 1827 recorded aged 50 yrs. [More accurately 53 years]

                                                     Isaac Gowlett - Field of Mars - July 13th 1827, 50, Ganges 1797, Illegible. 

                                                      In the most  fitting Tribute to Isaac Gowlett's quiet, warm and gentle demeanor is recorded on the 
                                                                          death certificate of his daughter 'Fanny' nearly seventy years later.
                                               Although seemingly a Parodox, he was 'fittingly' recorded: Father's Name:  'Isaac Gowlet - Gentleman' 
         Father's Name
1800-2:  Gowlett, Isaac    - S/AD1919  PTL    Parramatta  R  Ticket No. 1919 - Assigned Neil
1805-6:  Gowlett, Isaac    - S/AD1748  PTL    Parramatta
1811:      Gowlett, Isaac   - 2343                       Tried in London
1814:      Gowlett, Isaac    - S/4828       Free    On Stores        Overseer
1822:      Gowlett, Isaac    - S/A08235 CP      Previous Sentence 'Life'  - Labourer
               Gowlett, Faney  - S/A04233  Free   5 years - Born in Colony - Child of Isaac Gowlett
               Gowlett, Sally   -  S/A08234  Free   3 years - Born in Colony - Child of Isaac Gowlett
1823:      Gowlett, Isaac   -  S/22401     F.S.    Housekeeper, Sydney - per Ganges 1797.
               Gowlett, Sally  -   S/22400     F        7 years - Born in Colony  [!]
               Gowlett, Fanny -  S/22399     F        6 years - Born in Colony  [!]
                           See Scan of Original Record - Timeline 1823.
1828:      Gowlett, F          -  G0904       Age 10   - Place:  Female Orphan Inst., Parramatta.
               Gowlett, S          -  G0913       Age 7     - Place:  Female Orphan Inst., Parramatta.
1828:     Stevenson, Mary Ann - S2463 - Age 30 years - Free by Servitude - Catholic 
                                                     - per 'Francis & Eliza 1815' - Housekeeper - Pitt Town
                                                     - Other name: Gilberthorpe - Ref GO477.
              Stevenson, Maria        - S2464  - Age 7 years - Catholic - Pitt Town - Born in Colony
              Stevenson, Thomas    -  S2465 - Age 6 years - Catholic - Pitt Town - Born in Colony
              Stevenson, Theophillus - S2466 - Age 4 years - Catholic - Pitt Town - Born in Colony
              Stevenson, George  -  S2467 - Age 4 months - Catholic - Pitt Town - Born in Colony
              Gilberthorpe, Thomas - G0477 - Age 50 years - per 'William Pitt 1792 - Farmer -
                                                      - Free by Servitude - Sentence 7 years - Protestant - Pitt Town
                                                      - 120 Acres; Cleared 120; Cultd: 120, Horses: 1; Cattle 50;
                                                        Sheep; Other.
               [Note: Mary Ann's three young sons were recorded in BDM: Father: Thomas Gilberthorpe]

1828       Nothing was found for Fanny & Sarah's half sister Mary Ann [by now 13yrs]
               in any variation of 'Stevenson/Stevens.'
                              Mary Gowlett [nee Osborne]: Wife of Isaac;

                                        Mary may have returned to her family presumed living at Uxbridge but as the wife of a convict she was very likely 
                                        the target of  whispering gossip and constant stares. This may have become intolerable, work may have been 
                                        impossible to secure under such a stigma. 
                                        There is a marriage recorded on the 3rd January 1803 for William Turner to Mary Gowlate 'widow'.  In the absence 
                                         of other 'Mary' Gowlett candidates and that her marriage to Isaac was recorded under the name 'Gowlate' this could 
                                         very likely be Mary nee Osborne. [The mandatory period of separation before remarriage was 7 years i.e. 1796-1803].
                                         It is hoped that Mary did eventually remarry and ultimately found happiness. 

                       Mary Miller: Mother of Isaac's son;
                                                    Mary remained at  Kissing Point where she became a substantial landowner, her tireless efforts and hard work 
                                                    earned her the respect of the Colony.  
                       Mary Stevenson: Alias:  Smith, Stevens, Stephenson; Mother of Isaac's daughters;
                                                    By August 3, 1823  Mary had already a son by Thomas Gilberthorpe and subsequently had three sons 
                                                    by Thomas.  She left him when the three boys were quite young.  It has been suggested that she had 
                                                    another relationship and further issue. The last known reference for her was in 1834 when it was noted
                                                    that she gave her permission for Fanny her 19year old daughter to marry [Fanny being underage] 
                                                    By this time Mary would have been forty years old.  
                                                    Further details of her whereabouts after this time are not known.  Details of her death are unknown.
                             Fanny Gowlett; Eldest Daughter of Isaac Gowlett and Mary Stevens;

                                                                                         FANNY GOWLETT aged around early twenties - See enlarged copy in the Biography of her 2nd spouse James Hamilton. Left Click on Photo to Access. 
At the age of twelve, Fanny was assigned to Mr.A.E Hayes & his wife Elizabeth - 26th July, 1830 
as a servant. 
          Mr. Hayes was a well-known publisher in Sydney and a publicized critic of Governor Collins
          particularly in his neglect in remedying the treatment of his former soldiers who committed a minor 
          offence in order to be ousted from Service. Their treatment humiliating and criminal, resulting in the 
          death of one. As a result of Hayes published criticisms all all of his Land Grants & convict servants 
          were withdrawn. They had young child and expecting another needed domestic help.  
          The only option open and not under the control of Collins, was to apply for a young girl from the 
          Orphanage. Considering the caliber and idealistic sympathies of Mr. Hayes it is considered that  
          Fanny was well treated. Fanny's first child carried the middle name 'Elizabeth'.
On the 9th November 1837 at the age of nineteen Fanny married Edward Hillyard, an Engineer.  
          The document reads  ‘with the permission of her mother’.  It is assumed that Fanny was able to
          make contact with her natural mother or Elizabeth Hayes gave consent. 
Fanny gave birth to a daughter, Frances Elizabeth Hillyard baptized 8th October 1838, Sydney.
          Edward Hillyard disappeared between 1838-1842 although record of his death have not been found. 
On the 10th February 1842 an unclaimed letter was advertised a Sydney Newspaper addressed to
          'Fanny Hillyard' stated held at Sydney GPO awaiting collection.  
          Enquiries were made and this letter does not appear to have survived or was collected.
It is around this time that Fanny married James Hamilton [no record found of Marriage]. 
          Although no record of a marriage has been found to date, both James & Fanny's Death Certificate 
          state 'married 1843 at Parramatta' .
In 1844, at the age of twenty-five, Fanny gave birth to a daughter Lucy Hannah Hamilton, the 
          first of seven children born to James. 
The story of Fanny's marriage to James Hamilton can be found 
 James Hamilton & Fanny [nee Gowlett]
                            Sarah Gowlett: Daughter of Isaac Gowlett and Mary Stevens;

                                      Sarah remained at the Orphanage till she was 12 years old.
                                      On the 5th August 1834 a visit was made to the Orphanage by A.K. Mackenzie of Bathurst. 
                                                        He enquires of Sarah Gowlett as companion to his daughter and applies as follows;    

                                                       Transcription by LW;
                                                                                                                                                                                              at Mrs. Walkers Inn 
                                                                                                                                                                                              Tuesday 5th August 1834
                                                                                                                                                                                              6 O'Clock in the morning.
                                                        [to the Honble A. Mcleay]
                                                        My Dear Sir, 
                                                                    I am extremely disappointed after coming purposely to Parramatta to see His Excellency the 
                                                        Governor yesterday, to have met him on the road to Sydney, and having now so long a journey to perform
                                                        (being obliged still to join a contrary direction to Bathurst) I am unwilling to tire out my horses by
                                                        returning again to town.  Being therefore deprived the pleasure of a personal interview with His 
                                                        Excellency, will you do me the favour to intercede with him for me respecting the Orphan School girl
                                                        which I spoke of to you yesterday, and I will anxiously wait at this Inn the whole of this day for the 
                                                        purpose of receiving His Excellency's answer. 
                                                                    I mentioned to you that my reason for being so pressing was to take the girl to Bathurst with my
                                                        daughter, who is now accompanying me and so good an opportunity is not likely again to offer. 
                                                                    Immediately on my arrival her I went with the Rev. Mr. Dickinson to see the Girls and I shall
                                                        this morning apply to Mr. Martin for the Girl "Sarah Gowlett", 15 years of age and six years at the 
                                                                    Not having seen the New Orders respecting this Establishment, I trust any irregularity in my
                                                        application will be overlooked and that His Excellency will do me the favour to send me an order in 
                                                        the course of the day for the delivery of the Girl, Sarah Gowlett, pledging myself, as I hereby do, 
                                                        to enter into any Bond or otherwise that may be required, forwarding the same to me at Bathurst. 
                                                        I have the Honour
                                                             to be in haste
                                                                 my dear Sir
                                                                     Your most obliged Hble Servt.
                                                                              A.K. Mackenzie [signed] 
                                                       [Note: it is thought that Sarah was only 13 years old at this time - not 15 years]
                                                       The Mackenzie Family were prominent in Bathurst, it is unknown if Sarah was assigned to the applicant. 
                                                       There is an entry for Sarah Gowlett in the Bathurst Pioneer's Index Online but the entry does not record 
                                                       any details, only her name.                                                       

                                       At the age of sixteen Sarah gave birth to a daughter Henrietta Gowlett in 1838 baptised in Sydney, the father’s name 
                                                        was not recorded.  
                                       Henrietta died in infancy [1839]Sarah is therefore placed in Sydney at the time of her sister’s marriage to Edward Hillyard and the possible
                                                        appearance of her mother. 
                                                        No further information. 
                             Maria Gowlett: daughter of Isaac Gowlett and Mary Stevens;

                                      Maria is considered to have been living with her mother in Sydney around 1840. 
                                      Maria Gowlett married Patrick Matthews, a Sawyer,  at St. Mary's on the 17th May 1841.
                                      Maria and Patrick had the following children;
                                                  James Matthews:    Born 16th December 1840 at Phillip Street, Sydney [prior to marriage] 
                                                                                    Baptised 5th July 1842 in the Parish of St. James, Sydney. [Roman Catholic]
                                                                                    Died: 1909 Grenfell, NSW. 
                                                  Thomas Matthews: Born 1844 at Phillip Street, Sydney
                                                                                    Noted as witness in the burial of his sister Mary on the 4th September 1861. 
                                                                                    No further information. 
                                                  William Peter Matthews: Born 2nd July at Phillip Street, Sydney.
                                                                                    Baptised 21st April 1847 at Parish of St. James, Sydney   [Roman Catholic]
                                                                                    Married: Annie Amelia Murphy on the 10th August 1872 at Grenfell, NSW
                                                                                    Died: 27th March 1916 at the District Hospital at Cowra, NSW.
                                                                                    Buried: 28th March 1916, Roman Catholic Section, Cowra Cemetery, Cowra, NSW. 
                                                  Arthur George Matthews: Born 2nd July 1846 at Phillip Street, Sydney.
                                                                                    Baptised 25th November, 1849 Parish of St. James, Sydney. [Roman Catholic]
                                                                                    Married: Catherine Ellen Cleary on the 2nd July 1877 at the Registry Office, 
                                                                                    Grenfell, NSW - Occupation: Miner, Address: Grenfell. 
                                                 Frances Winifred Matthews: Born 22nd May 1850 at Chippendale, NSW. 
                                                                                    Baptised 10th March, 1851 Parish of St. James, Sydney. [Roman Catholic]
                                                                                    Married: John William Harding in 1876.  
                                                                                    No further information. 
                                                 Roger Matthews: Born 6th October 1852 at Chippendale, NSW
                                                                                Baptised 11th November 1852 Parish of St. James, Sydney. [Roman Catholic]
                                                                                Buried: 29th January 1854 
                                                 Philip Matthew Matthews: born 31st October 1858 at Chippendale, NSW. 
                                                                                Baptised 4th November 1858 Parish of St. James, Sydney. [Roman Catholic]
                                                                                Died: 18th May 1910 at District Hospital, Grenfell, NSW
                                                                                Buried: 18th May 1910 at Roman Catholic Section, Grenfell Cemetery.
                                                 Mary Matthew [twin] Born 31st August 1861 at Chippendale, NSW
                                                                                Died 3rd September 1861 age 3 days.
                                                                                Buried 4th September 1861, Sydney. 
                                                 Alice Sarah Matthews [twin] Born 31st August 1861 at Chippendale, NSW
                                                                                Died 3rd September 1861 age 3 days.
                                                                                Buried 4th September 1861, Sydney. 
                                                 At the birth of the twins Maria was aged 39yrs. Maria's date of death has not been established. 
                       Mary Ann Stevenson: Half sister of Fanny, Sarah & Maria;

                                                    No further information has been found for Mary Ann. Several entries in the NSW BDM's could apply.
                                                                                                                     The Life of Fanny Gowlett, daughter of Isaac Gowlett & Mary Ann Stevens