Thomas Lucas
                                                                [1759-1815]
                                         Marine of the 1st Fleet to Botany Bay, 1787.
                                Research in England

Thomas Lucas was a Private of the 23rd  Company, Portsmouth Division Marines 
accompanying the First Fleet to Botany Bay in [1787]. The Portsmouth Division
had little to do with his birthplace or venue of enlistment. See Marines Section 1 [Index]. 
He rose to the rank of Corporal in the new Settlement at Sydney Cove and after his
discharge in 1794 was later recorded as both a Farmer and Glazier in the fledgling 
settlement established at Norfolk Island.  He was also known to be a Freemason, 
'Past Master'. Whilst his voyage and his subsequent marriage to Convict Ann Howard 
of the Second Fleet to the Cove [1790] is extended on another page [see links right panel], 
this Page is focused on his life prior to his departure from the Motherland.

                                                                     INDEX

New!         Section 1:   Marines of the First Fleet  [ Link to Access Appended Page]
                                 Explaining the Marine Companies and Divisions.
                                 How to find a Marine Record at the National Archives, Kew.
                                 Preparations for the First Fleet to Botany Bay [1786].
                                 'Public Outcry' [Newspaper Clippings England 1786]
                                 List of Marines of the First Fleet and their outcomes.

                   Section 2:   Initiation into the Freemason Lodge of Temperance, London [1784]
                                 and other details relating to Thomas and his involvement in the 
                                 Brotherhood.
CAUTION!
Tenuous   Section 3:   Full Details of the Muster for the 23rd Company [Militia] 
                                       at West Kent for a 'Thomas Lucas' between 1782-1784.


Updated!    Section 4:   Various investigations made in an effort to establish his parents & family
                                 throughout England. Areas covered: SURREY, LONDON, KENT, BEDFORD.



New!          Section 5:   A Chart Showing Frequency of Names in his grandchildren, which may 
                                 assist future Research.
                                                                         Section 2 - Freemasons
It was shortly following these events at West Kent Entry that we know for certain [by inference] that Thomas Lucas was initiated into 
the Freemasons Lodge of Temperance [No.225] , London at a Meeting at the Black Horse Tavern, Coventry Street, London on the 
3rd February 1784.  [Freemason Archives - London].                                        
His Masonic Apron is now exhibited at the Freemason Lodge at Hobart, Tasmania.
                                                                                                              click on image to enlarge
                                                                                                    Masonic Apron of Thomas Lucas
                                                                                            Photo kindly supplied by the Freemason Lodge Hobart

Further enquiries with a copy of the Photo sent to London replied is as follows; 
                           'Prior to 1813 there was no standard form for a masonic apron although some common patterns did
                            emerge. 'Sit Lux et Lux Fuit' is a generic motto meaning "let there be light and there was light" 
                            but the angel with the trumpet that is on the bottom of the flap is a feature of membership certificates 
                            for lodges affiliated to the Ancient Grand Lodge [the rival to the first Grand Lodge established in 1717, 
                            such that the merger between the two in 1813 created what is now the United Grand Lodge of England].   
                            It would be consistent with the Lodge of Temperance which was so affiliated.  
                            However it may have been that this type of apron pattern was used by a number of Ancient Lodges so we
                            can't link it solely to the Lodge of Temperance. 
                            The construction is also perfectly in period."   [i.e. with Thomas's era in Freemasonry]
Within two years Thomas has achieved the Masonic Level of Passed Master;                         
The 4th degree "Past Master" elected their peers, affording the responsibility of the administration of the Lodge of Temperance in London.  
Degree 1] Entered Apprentice - the Degree of an Initiate, which makes a Mason.
Degree 2] an intermediate degree, involved with learning. 
Degree 3] is a necessity for participation in most aspects of Masonry.   
Degree 4] 'Past or Passed Master'
Degree 5]  Grand Master is considered the highest. Later some Lodges increased degrees up to 32.] 
Most Freemasons attain the 3rd degree within the first two years of their initiation.
             
Degree 4] 'Past or Passed Master' ;
The history of the term is obscure and it's history confusing but generally the 'Senior' Passed Master is the Deputy Grand Master Mason. 
                               'The Virtual Past Master degree exists in conformity to an ancient custom and practice, 
                                that only those Masons who had been elected to preside over a regular Lodge could be
                                admitted to the 'Royal Arch'.  From the English practice in the early days, it would 
                                seem that, almost from the inception of some sort of Work particular to the Office of 
                                Master, the actual ceremony had gone in two directions....' 
                                Source: http://www.grandchapterram.org/lecture5.html

On further enquiry to the Masonic Archivist in London I was kindly informed that although the prerequisites for initiation did not include
literacy, but that for Thomas to have reached the 4th degree would be likely that he would have been educated to some degree but this was
not mandatory. Thomas was later found to have literary skills shown in a letter signed by him in relation to the Freemason Lodge at 
Norfolk Island dated 18th December 1807.  See Thomas Lucas in the Colony.

Further enquiries to the London Freemason Archives regarding a Painting found of the Freemason Hall in London;
                                                                                    
                                                              Meeting at the Masonic Lodge Drury Lane, London 
Two paintings were found of the same building;
                                                 The Painting [above] compared to another painting of the same room dated 1841 which depicts 
                                                  the room identical in every feature except that there have been two other portraits added 
                                                  to the right wall. The London Archives have estimated the above painting to be dated around 1804.

Several entries in other areas were found for Lucas, however the search was limited, as the research was highly labour intensive. 
                                                                   
Early in 1787 Thomas left his payment with an unknown peer for his annual fees to the London Lodge of Temperance due to be paid 
in June 1787. This was done subsequent to his embark for the new Colony on the 13th May 1787. 
From the London Freemason Archives:
                                                 'A Thomas Lucas made his last payment to the Lodge of Temperance in June 1787, 
                                                  and there was no further record of him since that time.'
CAUTION- Tenuous                                                 Section 3
The north western point of Kent lies adjacent to London, it is borded to the west by Surrey and Sussex to the south.  

The Regiment [referring to the later 'Royal West Kent Regiment'] was organised in 1758 as the 'West Kent Militia' and had its base at 
Maidstone, Kent.  It was embodied in 1778, at which time it  was ranked the 12th regiment of militia, and remained active for five years. 
It  was regularly re-ranked through its embodiment, becoming the 4th in 1779, 36th in 1780, 27th in 1781, and the 23rd Company in 1782.   
It was embodied again in 1793 for the French Revolutionary Wars. Source: Wikipedia

Regular Musters were held at various venues throughout England. 
 
Militia Musters, 1781-82 (TNA: PRO WO 13):  
CD - Published by Family History Indexes, Northampton, England.

The Militia Act of 1757 provided for men to serve in Militia Companies, which formed a 'Home Front' Defense comprised of men selected 
by Ballot from lists kept by various Parishes of eligible males in their district between the ages of eighteen to forty.  

Preference in the Ballot was given to single rather than married men with children. It was mandatory for those selected to comply, unless
they could find a willing replacement. [the Ruling usually used by the Wealthy]. After initial training they were expected to continue training
for three weeks per year and personally Attend and 'Sign-on' at intermittent Musters [sometimes held in other Counties] for which they were
paid. Otherwise they could work in their normal occupations and live with their families, however they were to be 'on call' should there be a 
threat to the Motherland. This 'Home Guard' was not required to Serve Overseas.
CAUTION: This does not necessarily imply that those listed in the various parishes were native to the Unit that they were allocated. 
For instance a man living in London at the age of 18yrs could very well register in a village in the outskirts of London, or the closest 
County to him at this age. Registration does not necessarily indicate his birth place.

There were only two Lucas Entries in the Muster containing several hundred men stationed at West Kent, viz; 
LUCAS, Charles, Pte, Company: Lt. Col. Dalison:  Signed on Musters: 1; 2; 3; 4. [not necessarily related]
LUCAS, Thomas, Pte, Company: Capt. Hatton: Signed on Musters: 1; 2; 3; 4.
Expanded details for Thomas Lucas in the above musters were as follows;

MUSTER 1: 
Commanding Officer: Captain Hatton [West Kent];
                           This Muster was held at a variety of places from 26 August to 6th September 1781. 
                           Captain Hatton's Company assembled at Bishops Waltham [Hampshire] on 6th September 1781.
                           Service Dates:  Men who recorded service from 25 December 1780 to 24 June 1781. 
                           Thomas Lucas: attended & signed on.
MUSTER 2:
Commanding Officer:  Captain Hatton [West Kent]
                           Captain Hatton's Company assembled at Newbury [Berkshire] on the 28th March 1782.
                           Service Dates: Men who recorded service from 25 June to 24 December 1781. 
                           Thomas Lucas attended & signed on.
MUSTER 3:
Commanding Officer: Lieutenant Thomas Best [West Kent];
                           All Companies met at Harwich Camp [Kent/Essex] on 10 August 1782.
                           Service Dates:  Men who recorded service from 25 December 1781 to 24 June 1782. 
                           Thomas Lucas attended & signed on.
MUSTER 4:  
Commanding Officer: Captain John Borrett [West Kent];
                            This Muster was held at a variety of places from 22 to 24  February 1783. 
                            Captain Borrett's Company met at Sevenoaks [Kent] on 22nd February 1783.
                            Service Dates:   Men who recorded service from 25 June 1882 to 24 December 1782.  
                            Thomas Lucas attended & signed on.

Although the West Kent Militia later evolved into the Regular Army, 'Royal West Kent Regiment', they were entirely separate to 
Marine Forces, however the men of the Militia were encouraged to enlist in Regular Service.

The Marine Forces in England were raised in 1755 organised into 50 Companies assigned to one of three Divisions at Chatham &
Plymouth near London and to the south at Portsmouth, Hampshire. In consequence the allocation of Men to their companies and
Divisions was of no significance to their birthplaces throughout Britain.  See Marine Divisions. 

In consideration of Thomas Lucas assigned to the Portsmouth Division, he was known to be in London from 1784-1786 and there is 
evidence to support that he was in Service during this period or at least prior to 1786. See Marine Divisions.
One account of a Portsmouth Marine William Dew, in his Journal relating his Service at Botany Bay writes of the Portsmouth Division
well before the voyage. 
"While I lay in barracks learning to be a soldier, or rather a Marine - for there is all the difference between them...." See Marine Divisions.
                                                        Section 4 - Possible venues of birth. 
SURREY
The Leatherhead, Surrey.

The following details were previously withheld in consideration of a burial in London of Thomas Lucas, 'a child' in December 1764. 
However further investigations revealed this to be another family. 

John Lucas married Catherine Cook on the 4th January 1746 at St. George Chapel, Hyde Park Corner, Westminster, London.
Catherine Cook may have been baptised St. Martin's Westminster, 15th May 1727 the daughter of Richard & Patience [nee White:
married 15th April 1725 Lambs Chapel, St Botolph,Aldgate, London], making Catherine aged nineteen at her marriage in 1746.  
[Several alternative entries may be relevant, although this seems to fit her childbearing age]

Several early entries in the LDS IGI for 'Lucas' at St. Martin in the Fields with similar names to those below may point to the Family
being resident at St. Martin for at least a generation prior.  However Ancestral ties to the Leatherhead Lucas Family are also indicated.  

John and Catherine Lucas had the following Issue;
Sarah Lucas baptised 19th January 1748, St. Martin in the Fields, Westminster, London
Elizabeth Lucas baptised 28th January 1749 St. Martin in the Fields, Westminster, London
James Lucas baptised 13th November 1751 St. Martin in the Fields, Westminster, London 
Margaret Lucas baptised 23rd November 1756 St. Martin in the Fields, Westminster, London 
William Lucas baptised 28th December 1757 at Leatherhead.
Thomas Lucas baptised 18th May 1760 at Leatherhead 
James Lucas baptised 3rd October 1762 at Leatherhead.
Susannah Lucas baptised 14th May 1755 at Leatherhead. 
Sarah Lucas baptised 21st April 1765 at Leatherhead.
This would bring Catherine to the estimated age of thirty-nine and a marriage of twenty years. 
John was very likely of the same ancestry as 
  
[John Lucas married Catherine Witherden on the 2nd May 1748 Milton Next Sittingbourne, Kent - too late]. 
Providing the baptism of Catherine Cooke is correct, then this would imply of Thomas Lucas of the First Fleet;

Thomas Lucas    - Eldest Son:  Thomas Lucas 'snr', more likely to ensure record of Paternity in the Colony as the parents were not married.

Ann Howard was no fool and although her persona displays her as 'strong headed' in a Statement relating to her Trial, it is doubtful she 
would have introduced her own family in the names of her sons, considering that she was still in a fairly insecure situation being 
unmarried to the father and in the relationship barely three years at the birth of their 2nd son.
Her own Family Names would more likely appear in her grandchildren. See Naming Patterns: Grandchildren of Thomas & Ann Lucas.
In this instance for maternal and paternal grandparents we would be looking for a name 'universal' to this generation and precedence.  
 
Richard Lucas    - 2nd Son:       Father's Maternal Grandfather. 
John Lucas         - 3rd Son:        Paternal Grandfather.
Nathaniel Lucas- 4th Son:        Possibly a connection to the Convict of that Name of the 1st Fleet also connected with Leatherhead.
LONDON
The Baptism of Thomas Lucas 25th February, 1759 at the Lying in Hospital, Endell Street, Holborn [recorded born 24th February 1759]
is a  possibility, the venue was frequently used by seamen's wives. This venue also records three baptisms for George Lucas and his wife 
Catherine close to this time.   
The Original Film shows nothing in addition to the LDS IGI entry online.
                                                             
The latter source gives a marriage of Anthony Lucas to Louis[e] Renove at St. Clement Danes, Westminster, London 10th May 1758. 
KENT; 
A search of the Phillimores Kent Marriages Vol 1 & 2 did not show marriages for either Thomas or Charles [CD].
 
In another source, after transcribing many hundred Original Parish Records in London, there was a 'Charles Lucas' who settled
in Middlesex during this era, recording several children.
Mrs.MacKay, genealogist, on the east coast NSW was contacted, known by the writer for many years.  
Nola has many CD records for East Kent not available online.  She was requested to conduct a search professionally.  Her Reply:                       
'Kent has more than 140 ancient parishes plus non-conformist.  I have now looked for Thomas Lucas's baptism c 1750-1760 in 105 
Parish Records in Kent, however was not able to find him.'  
                                              
The National Burial Index [NBI] [2nd Edition] showed no suitable entry.  
The LDS IGI also offered no help for either Charles or Thomas in Kent, Baptisms or suitable Marriages.

KENT INVESTIGATIONS NOT EXPLORED
Some of the records of the Original Parish Ballots are often to be found in County Record Offices
Kent Archives Service - Online Catalogue [this usually gives Early Deeds, Wills, Documents, etc.]
The Kent Online Parish Clerks
North West Kent Family History Society
BEDFORD
[60 miles NW of London];  All entries taken from LDS IGI
BAPTISM:  Thomas Lucas 2nd Aug 1761 at Dean, Bedford the son of Nathaniel Lucas and Mary his wife.
PARENTS:  Nathaniel Lucas married Mary Judd 29th Oct. 1760 Dean, Bedford 
                     Mary was baptised  9th Sept. 1733 daughter of John Judd & Susannah Shepherd of Dean. 
                     Nathaniel Lucas died Testate, buried at Dean, Bedford on the 17th July 1803.
                     His widow:  Mary Lucas buried 2nd Feb 1819 recorded aged 86yrs. 
WILL:          Court of  the Archdeaconry of Bedford. Nathaniel  Lucas of Dean near Bedford, Yeoman: 
                     Date: 1st October 1803; Under £100 [Cash] ; 
                     Executor:  Charles Lucas ‘of same place’
                     Legatee:    William Lucas ‘son’ £20. Direction: The residue to Charles Lucas after the death of widow.
Comment:  Eldest son 'John Lucas' was the only one of his children to record issue at Dean. Nathaniel may not have claimed paternity.
ISSUE: All events at Dean, Bedford; John Lucas bapt. 6th Jan 1760 Dean All Hallows of John Lucas & Susannah Judd [pre marriage] John Lucas married Elizabeth unknown by whom he had issue; Nathaniel Lucas bapt. 1st Nov. 1801 son of John & Elizabeth William Lucas bapt. 11th May 1794
son of John & Elizabeth Thomas Lucas bapt. 11th May 1794 son of John & Elizabeth Charles Lucas bapt. 2nd June 1796 son of John & Elizabeth Mary Lucas bapt. 5th Feb 1798 Dean daughter of John & Elizabeth - Mary Lucas buried 13th March 1798 Joseph Lucas bapt. 15th May 1799 son of John & Elizabeth John Lucas buried 11th July 1813 recorded aged 53yrs. Thomas Luckas 2nd Aug 1761. William Luckes 15th Jan 1764 Ann Lucas 16th april 1772 - Ann Lucas buried 19th April 1772 [lds]
Mary Luckes 1st April 1769 - Mary Luckes buried 1st May 1768
Mary Luckes bapt. 17th August 1769 - Mary Luckes buried 12th Oct. 1769
Susannah Lucas 16th Oct. 1770 - Susannah Lucas died 6th March 1771
Joseph Luckes 30th march 1766, Dean - Joseph Lucas buried 13th April 1767 Charles Lucas* 8th Nov 1773. * This could not be the Charles Lucas in the Musters, however the name appears to be of Lucas Ancestry, not familiar with any 'Judd' entries.

.

           Frequency of Names in the grandchildren of Thomas Lucas & Ann Howard
 Name
THOMAS
Spouse;
Elizabeth 
Blinkworth
RICHARD
Spouse;
Elizabeth 
Fawkner
JOHN
Spouse;
Sophia 
[Sherburd]
NATHANIEL
Spouse
Elizabeth 
Fischer
Comments
 
PARENTS
PARENTS PARENTS PARENTS PARENTS PARENTS PARENTS PARENTS  
 
Thomas
Lucas
John
Blinkworth
Thomas
Lucas
John
Fawkner
Thomas
Lucas
William
Sherburd
Thomas
Lucas
Edward
Fischer
 
 
Ann
[Howard]
Elizabeth 
[Cummings]
Ann 
[Howard]
Hannah
[Pascoe]
Ann 
[Howard]
Elizabeth 
[Thornton] 
Ann 
[Howard]
Elizabeth 
[Gregory]
 
  SIBLINGS SIBLINGS SIBLINGS SIBLINGS SIBLINGS SIBLINGS SIBLINGS SIBLINGS  
 

Richard
Lucas

John Edward
Blinkworth
Thomas
Lucas
John Pascoe
Fawkner
Richard
Lucas
John
Sherburd
Richard
Lucas
Edward
Fischer
 
 

John
Lucas

Robert
Blinkworth
John
Lucas
 
John
Lucas
Elizabeth
Sherburd 
John
Lucas
William
Fischer
 
 

Nathaniel
Lucas

 
Nathaniel
Lucas
 
Nathaniel
Lucas
William
Sherburd
Nathaniel
Lucas
Joseph
Fischer
 
 
 ISSUE
ISSUE 
 ISSUE
 ISSUE
 ISSUE
 ISSUE
 ISSUE
 ISSUE
 
Alfred
 
 
Alfred
Anguish 
 
 
 
 
 
Alfred - Unknown
Alice 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alice Sarah 
 
Alice - Unknown 
Amelia
 
 
Amelia Sophia
Child [3]
 
Ellen Amelia 
Child [12] 
 
Emily [Amelia?]
Sophia
 
Amelia - Unknown but significant. 
Ann
Mary Ann
Child [5]
 
Ann 
Child [1]
 
Mary Ann
Child [9]
 
Mary Ann
Child [2]
 
Ann - namesake of mother Ann nee Howard 
Mary Ann - combination could be significant.
Anguish
 
 
Alfred Anguish
Child [8]
 
 
 
 
 
Anguish - said to be named such after 
a difficult birth.
Charles
 
 
Walter Charles
Child [9]
 
 
 
 
 
Charles - unknown 
Charlotte 
 
 
 
 
Charlotte
Child [10]
 
 
 
Charlotte - unknown 
Edward
 
 
 
 
 
 
Edward
Child []
 
Edward - maternal grandfather
Elizabeth 
Elizabeth 
Child [2]
 
 
 
 
 
Susannah
Elizabeth []
Susannah
Elizabeth []
 
Namesakes of respective mothers.
Ellen
 
 
 
 
Ellen Amelia 
Child [12]
 
 
 
Ellen - Unknown 
Emily
 
 
 
 
 
 
Emily Sophia 
Child []
 
Likely 'Amelia' - Unknown
Esther
 
 
 
 
Sarah Esther 
Child [8]
 
 
 
Esther - Unknown
James
 
 
James L 
Child [8]
 
Richard 
James [7]
 
 
 
James - Unknown 
John
Thomas
John [4]
 
John Richard
Child [2]
 
John  
Child [2]
 
John Joseph []
John Joseph []
 
John - John Lucas - paternal Uncle
Joseph
 
 
 
 
 
 
John Joseph []
John Joseph []
 
Joseph - Joseph Fischer - maternal Uncle
L.
 
 
James L [8]
 
 
 
 
 
L - Unknown
Mary 
Mary Ann
Child [5]
 
Mary Louise
Child [4]
 
Mary Ann
Child [9]
 
Mary Ann
Child [2]
 
Mary- a significant LUCAS Family Name. 
Louisa
Louisa 
Child [6]
 
Mary Louise
Child [4]
 
 
 
 
 
Louise - Unknown
Nathaniel
 
 
Nathaniel
Child [6]
 
Nathaniel
Child [3]
 
Nathaniel Edward 
Child [1]
 
Nathaniel - Nathaniel Lucas
Pascoe
 
 
William Pascoe
Child [5] 
 
 
 
 
 
Pascoe - Hannah Fawkner [nee Pascoe'
Maternal Grandmother.
Richard
 
 
John Richard
Child [2]
 
Richard James 
Child [7]
 
 
 
Richard - Richard Lucas
Robert
 
 
 
 
William Robert 
Child [6]
 
 
 
Robert - perhaps Robert Blinkworth, 
brother-in-law of father.  
Sarah
Sarah[3]
 
 
 
Sarah Esther
Child [8]
 
 
 
Sarah - unknown
Sophia
 
 
Amelia Sophia
Child [3]
 
Sophia 
Child [4]
 
Emily Sophia 
Child []
 
Sophia - Sophia Lucas nee Sherburd, 
wife of John Lucas.
Susan/
Susannah
Susannah
Child [1]
 
 
 
Susan Elizabeth
Child [11]
 
Susannah Elizabeth
[]
Susannah Elizabeth
[]
 
Susannah - a significant LUCAS name. 
Thomas
Thomas John
Child [4]
 
 
 
Thomas
Child [5]
 
Thomas William
Child [3]
Thomas William
Child [4]
Thomas William
Child [5]
 
Thomas - Thomas Lucas [snr.]
Walter
 
 
Walter Charles 
Child [9] 
 
 
 
 
 
Walter - Unknown
William
 
 
William Pascoe
Child [5]
 
William 
Child [1]
William Robert
Child [6]
 
Thomas William
Child [3]
Thomas William
Child [4]
Thomas William
Child [5]
 
William - Possibly William Sherburd.
William - alternatively unknown.
Militia: http://www.ramsdale.org/militia.htm
BDM: NSW State Archives & Tasmania State Archives.