Nathaniel Lucas [Convict] - Thomas Lucas [Marine]
                                                                       1st Fleet to Botany Bay 1787

                                                                            Were they related?

                                                              CAUTION: This Page is not written to imply a connection between the two men, 
                                                                                   but to merely to present information currently at hand.
                      The Leatherhead Connection

        Nathaniel Lucas is considered by many online sources to have been born 
             anywhere from 1761-1765. A carpenter by Trade, he was indicted for Theft at the 
             Old Bailey, London in July 1784 receiving a sentence of seven years transportation, 
             ultimately dispatched on the First Fleet to Botany Bay in 1787.

             Although his baptism has not been found, there is evidence to suggest that he was 
             formerly of Thames Ditton and consequently he is in focus to claim a possible 
             connection to the Lucas Family of Leatherhead as the possible son of 
             John Lucas [1724-1808] of Thames Ditton, Surrey and his wife Mary nee Bradford.
             This John Lucas was a direct descendant of the Early Lucas Family of Leatherhead.

        Thomas Lucas was born c. 1760, a Marine and Freemason in the 23rd Company, 
              Portsmouth Division, volunteering with many other Marines throughout the three 
              Divisions in England, he was one of two hundred and eight selected to accompany several hundred Convicts
              to establish a new British settlement at Botany Bay, so named by Cook in 1770. 
              Thomas  was later recorded in the Colony as both Glazier and Farmer. The Hampshire
              Division of which he was attached had little significance in relation to his birthplace 
              or venue of enlistment.  See First Fleet Marines.
              Unfortunately the Portsmouth Division Marine Records have not survived.  

              Although there are several hypothesis presented by his descendants published online 
              relating to his birthplace, the most popular appears to be around the Surrey/London area, 
              in particular the baptism of Thomas Lucas, son of John & Catherine at Leatherhead 
              on the 18th May 1760.
                                                     The Prospect of Connection               

               Thomas Lucas & Nathaniel Lucas voyaged in the same Fleet and the same ship 
              'Scarborough' to Botany Bay in 1787.  It has been said this may have been 'arranged' 
               through Thomas's connections with other Freemasons, Officers of the Fleet.
               Thomas subsequently naming his youngest of four sons 'Nathaniel' presents another
               haunting prospect of some 'possible' link together with two of Nathaniel's children
               naming their sons 'Richard', the name of one of Thomas's other sons. 
               The name 'Thomas' is prevalent in later generations of the Lucas Family of Thames
               Ditton, formerly of Leatherhead.
Leatherhead Family

Thames Ditton Family

Nathaniel's Letter

A Family Name

A marriage at T.Ditton
and a Baptism

A Tenuous Thread

Thames Ditton

Lucas Family at
Kingston upon Thames

Addressing Documented 
Evidence for Leatherhead

London continued

Nathaniel vs Thomas
- as brothers?



Following the ancestry of the Lucas Family of Leatherhead there were three Early Lucas Families, recording 
Issue from 1686. Andrew Lucas [c.1665-1737] a labourer;  Joseph Lucas [c1674-1740], who married heiress 
Catherine Goddard and the progenitor of the Lucas Family later of Thames Ditton, John Lucas [c.1664-1738].

Although all three families were well documented in early records, the later generations of this latter family
were represented in the Will of John Lucass [1714-1797], in which the bulk of the Testator's entire Estate fell to 
the surviving descendants of his grandfather John Lucas [c.1664-1738] , predominately through his first cousins
John Lucas [1724-1808] [then Southwark, formerly of Thames Ditton] with his sister Fanny and their children 
and grandchildren. 

This Lucas family is well documented with various Documents and Wills found at the National Archives at Kew, 
the Surrey History Centre, Surrey and British History Online.  There is sufficient information in Wills and 
Documents to paint an accurate picture of his family, none of which mention Nathaniel or Thomas.

This John Lucas [1724-1808] [then Southwark, formerly of Thames Ditton] was baptised at Leatherhead in 1724, 
the son of James Lucas and his wife Frances nee Parker. At the age of fourteen he was a Legatee in the Will of his
paternal grandfather John Lucas [c.1664-1738]. He married Mary Bradford in 1748 and had several Issue of whom
Baptisms have not as yet  been confidently found. 

Although Nathaniel's baptism also has not been found, there is evidence to suggest that he was formerly of 
Thames Ditton in a letter written by Nathaniel at Norfolk Island in 1795 addressed to his father.  At first glance
the intended recipient appears to be Wm Jn Lucas or Mr. Jn Lucas, 'Thames Ditton Surrey'.  The letter, now held
by the NSW Archives, basically refers to the tragic death of Nathaniel's twin daughters and his success in the 
Colony.  He also sends money to his mother and sends his love to his brothers and sisters. 

Another possible hint to Nathaniel's Family is in the marriage of his grandson James Lucas in the Colony in 1868.  
Although not recorded born with this middle name, he marries under the name James 'Bradford' Lucas, the middle
name carried through several subsequent generations.

The next possible inference for Nathaniel is the marriage of Nathaniel Lucas to Margaret Mitchell at St. Nicholas, 
Thames Ditton on the 25th August 1782, this would certainly place Nathaniel in this Township.
However a baptism for James Lucas, son of Nathaniel two years later at Mitcham, seven miles East of Thames Ditton,
on the 15th October 1784, may cast a shadow on this Parish Entry. 

This single isolated baptism may apply to a son born after Nathaniel's indictment in July of that year, taken by 
his spouse Margaret or his family to Mitcham, where the Parish Records display fragments of a 'Mitchell' family 
in that village. No mother's name is recorded. However no burial was found for the child at Mitcham or in other 
records in Surrey and in the Colony Nathaniel named his eighth child 'James'.

There were only two representatives of the 'Lucas' Name on the 1st Fleet, Thomas & Nathaniel, 
Although at this point only a tenuous thread, amongst the many dignitaries, military and booksellers etc 
awaiting the much anticipated Book 'The Voyage to Botany Bay' by Arthur Philip, due to be published
in London  in 1789, a singular 'Lucas' subscriber was one of the first to add his name to the List i.e. 
William Lucas. Several other names on the list were familiar with members of the first Fleet to Botany Bay 1787.                
Public Interest was so intense that subsequent Editions II & III were published by 1790.

There was a period of ten years between the departure of the 'First Fleet' in 1787 and the above mentioned 
Lucass Will of 1797, mentioning the family of legatee John Lucas then of Southwark, formerly of Thames Ditton.    

Thames Ditton and Kingston upon Thames were contiguous townships, their Parish Churches less than two miles
apart.  The Lucas Family was found in this area, recording events in both churches.  
The children of John Lucas of Thames Ditton, living in England in 1797, are firmly established in subsequent 
Family Documents as; 
James Lucas
John Lucas
William Lucas
Mary Lucas
Ann Lucas
Sarah Lucas
For various reasons [implied on other appended pages] all are assumed born between 1749-1764.
In respect to John having kin adjacent Kingston upon Thames, there was a Thomas Lucas [1751-1840] recording 
Issue at this venue.  This Thomas Lucas married late in life in 1791 and whose son Thomas Lucas [the younger] [1792-1848], 
enlisted in Military Service in 1812 at the age of nineteen. It is doubted that this Thomas Lucas [the Elder] had
any connection to the above family, not mentioned in any Family Documents.  
See further information in the Biography of his son [appended page] link above in this paragraph.
Several other Lucas fragments exist in the Parish Records. 

The Parish Records at Leatherhead record a further family, whose lineage has been difficult to place.
Baptisms at Leatherhead for John Lucas and his wife Catherine; 
Susanah Lucas bapt. 14th May 1755 Leatherhead Surrey - died young 
William Lucas bapt. 28th December 1757 Leatherhead Surrey
Thomas  Lucas bapt. 18th May 1760 Leatherhead Surrey
James Lucas bapt. 3rd October 1762 Leatherhead Surrey
Sarah Lucas bapt. 21st April 1765 Leatherhead Surrey

Although cautious, superimposing the family of John Lucas, who married Catherine Cook at St. George Chapel, 
Hyde Park Corner, Westminster, London on the 4th January 1746, gives the following result;

Sarah Lucas  bapt. 19th January 1748 St. Martin in the Fields, Westminster,  London - Did not  survive.
Elizabeth  Lucas bapt. 28th January 1749, St. James, Westminster,  London
James Lucas  bapt. 13th November 1751 St. Martin in the Fields, Westminster,  London - Did not  survive. 
Susanah Lucas bapt. 14th May 1755 Leatherhead Surrey
Margaret  Lucas bapt. 23rd November 1756 St. James, Westminster,  London
William  Lucas bapt. 28th December 1757 Leatherhead Surrey
Thomas  Lucas bapt. 18th May 1760 Leatherhead Surrey
James Lucas  bapt. 3rd October 1762 Leatherhead Surrey
Sarah Lucas  bapt. 21st April 1765 Leatherhead Surrey

Chronologically the baptisms fit snuggly.  The anomaly in venue for the 1756 Baptism is not daunting considering
that families often moved back and forth for short periods if they had family in another area.  The original images
of these Parish Records in London reveal a Cook Family, however the name 'Lucas' was surprisingly rare.
There is little evidence of John and Catherine remaining in Leatherhead. Appearing at this ancestral cradle, 
it was considered that the ancestry would have been apparent although the two earlier families have not been 
extended fully.   A second 'John Lucas' is not implied in subsequent Documents for the Leatherhead Family.

Of particular interest is another parallel family in London recording issue during this period.   
Whilst the entries do not apply to either Thomas and Nathaniel, both infants having died in early childhood
it does perhaps co-incidentally record many names synonymous to these respective families in the Colony 
and is a possible alternative 'extended' family member of either or both;

William Lucas bapt. 25th July 1754 - son of William & Elizabeth [Died 6 th  October 1755]
James Lucas bapt 11th January 1756 - son of William & Elizabeth
John Lucas bapt. 5th July 1757 - son of William & Elizabeth [Died 19th  October 1758]
Mary Lucas bapt. 5th November 1758 - daughter of William & Elizabeth
Richard Lucas bapt. 7th October 1759 - son of William & Elizabeth
George Lucas bapt. 20th Dec 1761- son of William & Elizabeth
*Thomas Lucas bapt. 29th December 1765 - son of William & Elizabeth [Died 18th  Dec 1766]
  Parish Record for this child's burial gives his age as 'one' year. 
*Susannah Lucas bapt. 29th December 1765 - daughter of William & Elizabeth
  Parish Record does not indicate that these two children were twins or one older - simply states in brackets 
  Thomas - Susannah - Lucas }  son - daughter of William & Elizabeth
Ann Lucas bapt. 19th April 1767 - daughter of William & Elizabeth [Died 4th  July 1768] 
Nathaniel Lucas bapt. 28th August 1768 - son of William & Elizabeth [Died 10th  October 1772]
Parish Record for this child's burial gives his age as 'four' years. 
Charles Lucas bapt. 25th Feb 1770 - son of William & Elizabeth
The Original Parish Record does not give details of Father's occupation etc in any of the above entries, ages are noted in Burials. 
The most likely marriage for the couple was on the 15th September 1753 at St. Ann & St. Agnus, Aldersgate, London.
The entry reads;
         'William Lucas, bachelor & Elizabeth Hodges, spinster, both of this Parish of St. Ann's Aldergate,
           London. Banns published Sept 2nd, 3rd & 8th 1753 by Wilfred Charles, Curate.'
Research is continuing. 

For:         Thomas named his youngest child Nathaniel.
                 Although Thomas had only sons, in the two subsequent generations the similarity in frequency 
                 of names is similar.  
                 Two of Nathaniel's children named a son 'Richard', the name of another son of Thomas Lucas*
Against:  Some of Nathaniel's descendants argue that if Thomas Lucas was Nathaniel's brother then surely 
                 there would have been some mention regarding him in the Nathaniel's letter in which there was 
                 no reference to Thomas.

1788 -  After arrival Thomas remained at Sydney Cove enlisting in the NSW Corps after the arrival 
            of the 2nd Fleet in 1790, for a further three years during which time he formed a relationship with 
            convict Ann Howard  by whom he had four sons.                                     
            They settled at Norfolk Island in 1794 and later at a Grant of Land near Hobart, Van Diemen's Land. 
            His youngest son was named Nathaniel. 

1788 -  After arrival Nathaniel was sent to Norfolk Island where as a Master Builder with the help of a convict 
            crew he constructed many of the two storey houses on the Island during which time he formed a 
            relationship with Olivia Gascoyne by whom he had several issue. They later moved back to the 
            mainland and settled in the Liverpool area NW of Sydney.            
            Nathaniel named his youngest son Thomas [tenuous relevance].
            Two of his grandsons were name 'Richard', the name of Thomas's second son.

There is certainly evidence to suggest that Nathaniel Lucas has a likely claim to descent from this Early Lucas 
Family of Leatherhead.  Evidence of a confident link to Thomas Lucas is not as confident.  It is such a pity that
the Marine Records for Portsmouth Division appear not to have survived.  There are other venues offered for 
the birth of the latter however the naming of the two grandson's 'Richard' and several other implied items 
above are haunting.   

There is documented evidence that both Nathaniel and Thomas were in London between 1784 to embarking 
to Botany Bay.

1784:  Thomas Lucas is recorded around the Kensington/Chelsea area [London] about 2 miles from Holborn 
            on the 3rd February 1784 when at the White Horse Tavern he was initiated into the Freemasons

1784:  In July that year Nathaniel Lucas was working as a Carpenter in London, lodging at the Red Lion Inn 
           in Red Lion Street ,Holborn.
                                                    Click on Image to enlarge
                                               Red Lion Street , Holborn, London.

1784:  Nathaniel Lucas was tried at the Old Bailey, London on the 7th July 1784, sentenced to 7 yrs 

1785: 3rd May 1785 - 3rd January 1787: Nathaniel: [from June Dark's web site] 
                       'Nathaniel was sent to the "Ceres" hulk docked at Woolwich on the Thames'

           This is not far from Holborn Street.   He remained on the 'Ceres' for the next 3 years when he probably 
           worked on the  wharves in chains [common practice for prisoners of the hulks for forced labour and exercise]. 
           There were a series of convict uprisings on the 'Ceres'. If Nathaniel was on the 'Ceres' he appears to 
           have narrowly escaped Transportation to Africa.  See:
1786: Thomas meanwhile spent the next three years quickly rising through the ranks of Freemasonry achieving
           the 4th degree 'Past Master', elected  by his peers.                                  
1786 - Friday 18th August 1786: On this date the British Government made the decision to send several hundred
           Convicts to colonize Botany Bay [Cook 1770].

1786 - October  1786: Notices were distributed for Volunteer Marine Force to accompany the Voyage.
           Special Terms and Conditions were applied. Thomas Lucas enlisted with the rank of 'Private'.

1787 - 24th February 1787: Nathaniel with other convicts, were taken to south west to Portsmouth Hampshire.
1787 -  Early 1787: Thomas left his payment to the London Lodge of Temperance with an unknown person
             - due to be paid in June 1787.

1787 -  Of the seven ship Fleet at Port, both Thomas and Nathaniel were assigned to the 'Scarborough',
             which left England on the 13th May 1787 bound for Sydney Cove.