Scard Family History - One Name Study
~ The First Thousand Years ~

Judith-Ann S. Adams © 2012
Last updated 31st July 2013

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Older Research Extended
The Hedeby Rune Stone
Dane Runic Alphabet
The fricative 'ð' anomaly
The Great Domesday Book
The Scard Hundred East York
Suffix variations in North England

Other Origin Hypotheses
Germany
Iceland
Netherlands
Ireland
Italy
Scotland
Faroe Islands

Hints of Nobility
France

A far different Etymology
Dorset - Hampshire - Somerset - Devon
Sutton Waldron (1680)
Child Okeford (1660)
Early Lay Subsidy Rolls
AD1325
Summary
Next
Interactive Map
                                           Scard - The First Thousand Years
                                                                          Etymology  
                                                                                                                Judith-Ann S. Adams © 2012 
Scandinavian Legends

Click to enlarge image
On the 15th September 1888 a Newspaper Article (Left) published by the Manchester Journal, 
England under 'Scientific & Industrial Notes'  announcing the discovery of a 900 year old 
viking grave at Hedeby, Denmark. The remains are thought to be those of the viking Skarde
(anglicized), uncovered very near the famed  'Hedeby Stone' (Right) found thirty years earlier, 
and placed by the Danish King Svein,  honoring his hempingi* Skade around AD1003-1012. 
This name in its unadulterated form 'Skarði' was revered throughout Scandinavia and many 
who carried it  were recorded in legends holding high  positions in Court and for their feats of 
great courage. The Heimskringla (c.1230) expounds several heroic deeds of Asguat Skarde 
"the bailiff" and his brother Thorgaut, emissaries of Olaf  King of Sweden around 1016.    
Norse warriors extolled their heroes and 'Skarde' was carried as a 'christian' name by  many.  
The Heimskringla again tells of such a man Skarde a prisoner of Erik of Norway in AD 999.
The Hedeby Stone is now exhibited at the Hedeby Viking Museum, Schelswig,Germany    
Hedeby Stone: Inscription:
 suin : kunukR : sati : stin : uftiR : skarþa : sin : himþiga* : ias : uas: farin : uestr : ion : nu
: uarþ : tauþr : at : hiþa:bu
Norse translation:: "Kong Svend satte stenen etter sin hirdmand Skade, som var dratt vestpå, men 
nå fant døden ved Hedeby." 
English: "King Sveinn placed the stone  in memory of Skarði, his retainer (personal body-guard),
who traveled to the west, but who then died at Hedeby.
*Several translations: housecarle, body guard, house servant


Click to enlarge image 

:

Hedeby is located on the old Danish/German border (now north-west Germany) Svein had raged campaigns on England, the "war in the West", from 1003 -1012 in revenge of the St. Brice's Day massacre, intermittently returning to Denmark. Ultimately victorious Svein ruled England only 15 days from 25th Dec 1013 to 3rd Feb 1014 when he died suddenly. According to the rune stone it was during one of these return visits to the homeland that Skarde met his death.[right] The Norweigen Painter Lorenz Frølich[1820-1908] gives his impression of King Sweyn at the Funeral Feast celebrating the Death of his father Harald Bluetooth [c.986] The Jomsborg Vikings (mercenaries) face him to the front under the watchful eye of his two Heimpegi (left) in blue & one in maroon, both in the robes of the Royal House. The family members are historically correct.

Click to enlarge image

                                                                       However the inscription on the Rune Stone differs phonetically from the anglicized 'Scarde' in the dental fricative þ pronounced 'th' . 
                                                                                                                                                                Danish Futhark (Runic Alphabet)

Above: Skarþi in runic text (i.e. Scarthi anglicized Skarde & Scard) Another example in the word hiþa:bu (Haithabu anglicized Hedeby) This 16 letter alphabet also known as known the 'Younger Futhark' was a short form of the 'Elder Futhark' originally containing 24 symbols, above dropping g, w, æ, p
(not þ which it retained), z, e, ng, d, and o, and a new one 'R' was created . The use of the voiced þ also appeared in the Norse Work Heimskringla like many other similar manuscripts introduced from this region in the 13th Century in alphonic relationship with the unvoiced fricative ð [edh], i.e. Thy & with respectively in which case the þ was normally placed at the beginning or end of a word, and the phonetically similar ð (softer) occurring anywhere in between. Thus in the Rune Stone Skarde is written Skarþi but in the Norse Legends it is written Skarði. A direct reference to the Name in England is purported to be recorded in the Kormak's Saga . Folklore in the township of Scarborough in East Yorkshire, states that the original village was established circa 933 by the viking raiders Þorgils Skarði (Thorgils Scardi) and his brother, who in Kormak's Saga were said to have established a settlement at Skardaborg (Scarborough). Although the original settlement was destroyed it was rebuilt in the early 12th Century. In a literal sense the Norse word Skarði means crevice or cleft and presumably based on the name's topographic description there are several published assertions that Þorgils Skarði was so named because he had a 'cleft palate', which in view of the esteemed status connected to the Name throughout Scandinavia is considered somewhat imaginative. The second instance of the name in England precedes the Norse Manuscripts by two centuries, found in the Great Domesday Book following the Conquest of England in 1066 compiled during the twenty year period beginning at approximately 1070 until its completion in 1086. Any trace of the written form þ & ð was supplanted when assessments were compared with prior Taxation Records (Latin) dating from the time of Edward the Confessor (noted in the Great Book TRE) and in whose time Texts were written in both Old English & Latin, which the former (Anglo-Saxon) had also increased their alphabet having since re-introduced the letter 'd' whilst retaining þ & ð. As the Normans had no equivalent for 'ð' any documents used by the Normans formerly written in Old English, were instead transliterated using the closest Latin form, the lower case 'd'. The former 'ð' was eventually replaced by the Modern English digraph written "th". In Germany the voiced & unvoiced 'th' has been extinct for many centuries. (Old English & Norse) ð  - (Latin) δ
The Great Domesday Book records a Divisional Hundred 'Scard' within the ancient kingdom of Northumbria, East Yorkshire embracing Birdsall, Wharram
le Street, Towthorpe,Scagglethorpe and Rillington, its sub-districts. The Hundred is considered to have been a remnant of the Norse Name Skarði possibly
attributed in some was to the township founded by the Scardi brothers although this is difficult to believe in that Vikings of such caliber would have been
expected to make their base closer to the sea as is Scarborough rather than 20 miles inland from the coast.
The SCARD Hundred from the Domesday Book:
In BIRDSALL , Ketilbert had 1 manor of 13 carucates to the geld. Nigel has this of the count, but it is waste.
In WHARRAM LE STREET, Ketilbert had 1 manor of 12 carucates to the geld. Nigel has it of the count, and it is waste. There are 30 acres of meadow.
The whole manor [is] 2 leagues* long and 1 broad. TRE it was worth 100s.
In TOWTHORPE [in Wharram Percy], Orm had 3 carucates to the geld. The soke is in Howsham. Count Robert has it, and it is waste.
In SCAGGLETHORPE [in Settrington] is 1 carucate to the geld, sokeland of Menethorpe. The count has there 1 man paying 2s.
In RILLINGTON are 2 carucates and 2 bovates to the geld. The soke belongs to Kirkham. The count has it, and it is waste
*One League = Measurement of distance, twelve furlongs, or about 1½ miles - from Mediaeval Dictionary online
Left: Image & translation of the Great Domesday Book courtesy of the National Archives, Kew, Surrey

Right: Map showing the Scard Hundred in Yorkshire retrieved from the research notes of Scard Family Historian P.H.Morgan (1986).

Trivia

The use of 'Hundreds was purportedly introduced in England by the Saxon King Alfred the Great around AD895 for various reasons. A group of Ten Freeholders
within a common area with their families were each chosen to form a 'Tithing'. Each were pledged to the King to uphold Law and Order. Literally these Ten
Tithings constituted a Hundred for which a Sheriff was appointed by Gift to High Ranking Aristocracy solely responsible to the King. Later these Hundreds,
consisting of various numbers were grouped into individual 'Counties' and were under the Control of Nobility. The system in 'naming' each hundred is obscure. Svein, in his final siege in Britain conquered Northumbria in early 1013, which embraced Sth East Scotland and Northern England and whose land owners readily submitted to Dane rule. This may invite the hypothesis that name of this district could be traced to the deceased but much revered Hempingi Skarde. This is doubtful in view of Svein's brief reign as British Monarch although it is interesting to see the name Sven was listed in the Domesday Book as a Land Holder perhaps it is possible although more likely somehow a remnant of the Scardi brothers.
 
Any prior phonetic differences in North England appears to have little effect following the Domesday Book as laity were likely more familiar with the tithe names later adopted as names of 
villages in the area although variations did appear with various suffixes: Scarde-burgh, Scard-borough, Scard-field and Scarde-ville. The name still exists in its unadulterated form as 'Scarth'  
in a handful of early families. A modern variation includes Scarfe. The earliest instance of the anglicized version connected to a personal name is found in the Book entitled 'The Heads of 
Religious Houses, England and Wales Vol2.: "Margaret de Scard" 5th Prioress of the Abbey at Yedingham in Yorkshire from 1290-1300. Subsequently isolated appearances appear in this 
region during the 14th & 15th Centuries but do not appear to have proved prolific and do not seem to be associated with the later Scard Families in Southern England.
Part II
Various other 'Origin' Hypotheses 
It has been a privilege to read the research notes of some of the better known Scard Family Historians including those my own maternal uncle Harold Augustus Scard (Aust.1985) and equally 
honoured by hearing many interesting Family Legends kindly provided by descendants over the world, each with a unique hypothesis relating to the Origin of the Family Name. Most of these 
hypotheses were formed prior to personal computers and the internet. With the greatest respect for my many predecessors, by using these recent advantages the following results were found;     
France:       See Separate Section Part III below

Germany:  Although the High German Consonant Shift from the 5th to the 10th century does argue a much earlier change in the the dental fricatives þ & ð which in the final stage this
                    phonetic transition also embracing Dutch culminated in the alveolar 't/d'. The sound 'th' became extinct and written together in the middle of a word is pronounced separately but 
                    rapidly for example in the Christian Name Matthew:  i.e. Mat-hew.  
                    Considering Hedeby was the largest Viking Settlement in the known World, which also lies on the Dane/German border, strays were obviously possible.  In Bremen, Germany 
                    the closest name found was recorded 'Schede' in a Taxpayers' Record 1653: Engelke Enschede - occupation a Tree maker Silk Meis although the German 'k' clusters translate in 
                    the second position Skulptur - Sculpture (English) - remaining phonetically parallel.  The 'd' consonant enbraces all the phonetic amomalies reflected in the German 'Bruder'  to 
                    English 'Brother'. Any migratory fragments England have not been proven, however in a broad sense this becomes more interesting in the 14th Century Dorset LSR where an isolated 
                    instance is found recorded 'Skede'. See South West Country (below).

Iceland:     The name Skede; 
                    Not to be confused with Skade the wife of the Mythological King Oden, was the male Skade (Skaði) in the Icelandic Saga  Volsunga written in old Norse during the 13th Century.
                                         "...another man withal is told of in the tale, hight Skaði, a great  man and mighty of his hands; yet was Sigi the mightier and the higher of kin,
                                           according to the speech of men of that time. Now Skaði had a thrall (servant) with whom the story must deal somewhat, Bredi by name.........."
                    A Legend worth keeping however the anomaly Scathi still applies.

The Netherlands;
                    Presented as Saard has failed to find any proof of this concept in any variation, however this region was effected by the High German Consonant Shift. 

Ireland:      As many of Ireland's Documents were destroyed during the Fire at the Four Courts in Dublin 1925, extensive research of Ireland's 'The Annals of the Four Masters' where the task
                     was to compile all the existing known history of Ireland for future generations including Sagas and Myths from 1,500 years before the time of Christ to when the Project began in 
                    1632 and completed on August 10, 1636. The Name 'Scard' in any likely Gaelic variation unfortunately was not found prior, during or subsequent to this time. 

Sicily and Southern Italy;
                   Gui-scard predominately relating to a possible connection to the Norman War-Lord Robert Gui-Scard [c.1015-1085].  No positive connection was made - See separate page.

Scotland:  Further research shows a phonetically similar  'Skeard' - 'Skeade' with several groups of descendants who have maintained this form, now found in East Lothia, Scotland, various parts
                   of Canada and South Africa whose lineage can extend the beginning of their records in these areas at the earliest the mid 1600's at best.  Certainly the word 'Skead' pronounced with
                   an alveolar trill familiar to the Scottish accent would indeed produce 'Scard'.  Self made successful lumberman James Skead of Ottawa Canada (born 1818) is purported to trace his 
                   descent in Scotland to name several examples. Like Ireland, any possible Celtic forms were also investigated without result. 

Faroe Islands:  Scottish ancestry is inviting especially combined with the now abandoned village of Skarð (pronounced Skeardh) in the Faroe Islands the exact mean between Iceland
                   and the Shetland appelico which lays only 177 Nautical Miles NW.  This is certainly close enough to perhaps invite early occupation in Scotland. 

                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                    Remains of a ruined building at Skard (Faroe Islands) 
                                                                                                                                                               photo courtesy of wikipedia

      
Part III 
France
.
France:      The discovery in 2009 by David Kenny (Australia) of a fragment relating to a connection to Nobility has since been the focus of much attention by many descendants.
                    French:  "Inventaire sommaire des Archives départementales antérieures à 1790: Archives civiles, série B. De Archives départementales de la Nièvre,  Henri Adam de Flamare, 
                    H. de Flamare Publié par G. Vallière, 1897  English:  "Brief inventory of the previous regional Archives to 1790:  Civil  archives, series B Of regional Archives of the Nièvre, 
                    Henri Adam of Flamare, O'Clock of Flamare Published by G. Vallière, 1897" Excerpt:  "Reçu des titres de preuve de noblesse par Scard (s septembre 1674)."
                    English:  "Received titles of proof of nobility by Scard (s (5?) September 1674)."

                    The first hint of a Scard connection in Frances was taken from the Book Wales and Cinema: The First Hundred Years Pg 60 by David Berry which appears to have come from the
                    family of Henry James Scard [1859-1917] descended from James Scard & his wife Elizabeth (nee Guthridge) the original Scard Family at Gosport, Hampshire.  Henry pioneered 
                    the early Bioscope the forerunner of the Cinema Industry. The excerpt reads:  "The Scards, originally from France gained a foothold in the bioscope business as associates of 
                    the ..... Henry James Scard (born 1859 married Mary Polly....." 

                     In the first instance, after much research in Published French Family Armoury it is very likely that the original transcription was an error for Sicard, through Sicard, the Lords of 
                    Carufel connected to the Kings of France. This is under investigation (Feb 2012).  Optional: URL: http://lordorlady.blogspot.com.au/2009/06/sgt-jean-sicard-de-carufel-lord.html 
                    In the second instance,  Some may have fled to England during the Huganaut Exodus, this Calvinistic Ideology gaining momentum during the Reformation.  Followers fled to many 
                    parts of the globe and those who sought refuge in England found asylum during the brief reign of Edward VI [1553-1559] settling near Kent.  Later Edward VI granted them the 
                    Western crypt of Canterbury Cathedral for worship. 

                    Updated Research Dec. 2012:  Extensive research of the proposed French Origins for the Scard Name in France revealed no conclusive evidence of a connection between the Sicard
                    Family aforementioned with the ancient pregenitors of the Name within England.  Investigations revealed the more likely scenario that the name 'Sicard' is a subsequent variation
                    of "Giscard' and bears no connection to to the Scard Families generating from South Country, England.  However it is possible that strays generating from the latter family did 
                    find their way to France from as early as the late 17th Century when the latter name gradually appears in various documents from this point.  This often renders a difficult task
                    to separate the two names with errors through limited literacy in documents and parish records. 

 
                                                                                                                                                                           *   *   *

However in 
South-West Country  England
a far different etymology had developed 
spanning over eight centuries
 
Part IV

                   Although it is the nature of families to eagerly embrace a notable lineage and would be simpler for any genealogist to follow the lineages through the Visitations throughout England 
                   from the 15th Century alas after much investigation it would seem that our own Scard Families are indeed proving to be of humble origin rising to a reasonable local status through 
                   the sweat of their brows and quite frankly some rather convenient marriages to families of local status.  Many documents have  been sought to unfold this enigmous beginning in England
                   including early Lay Subsidy Rolls and Musters during the Tudor Period, Protestion Oaths from beginning of the English Civil War and later Hearth Tax Records.  Personal Documents 
                   such as Deeds, Wills, Probate and Parish Records were also investigated.  
                   
                                                                                                                               North Dorset    
                                                                                                                       
 .                                                                                                                                                                     North Dorset (partial map)

                The following section displays scans of Parish Records demonstrating the transition of the surname from Skead to Scard in two parishes in North Dorset during the late 17th and 
                 early 18th Century. Prior to this point the name was usually written as 'Skead' and in some cases Skerd.  Possibly phonetically presented in the avecular trill particular to the 
                 aforementioned form in Scotland.  The transition in the introduction of the consonant "r" in its earliest form is most striking in the parish of Sutton Waldron, North Dorset and 
                 indeed rise to the hypothesis that all Scard Family descendants owe their lineage to families in this region. Indeed the Parish Records in these two villages are teeming with 
                 examples of this evolution.  The phonetic difference is most noteably due to the Scottish background of their long standing parson the Reverend Nathaniel Napier. 
                In the next secion (Early Families in Dorset) further proof unfolds when five sons disperse in the early 1700's to other areas settling throughout Dorset and as far east as Hampshire.
                                     Sutton Waldron
                                                                     North Dorset
Parish Records:    The surviving Parish Records begin in 1680 
Rector:                 The Reverend Nathaniel Napier (B.A. Oxford) Rector 35 years from 1686-1722
(Handwriting)      The Scard Family abruptly disappear from the Sutton Waldron records after his
                             death the last record was 1721. Succeeded 1722 by Richard Rogers who served until 1768 
Parish Clerks:       Appears to be several since 1680 - unnamed based on various handwriting.
Calendar:               All entries below were written using the old 'Julian Calendar' 
                              This writer has provided Equivalents for the Gregorian Calendar 
                              written in brackets example: baptised 7th Feb 1693 (G 1694).            
Digital Images:      Digital Images are courtesy of Ancestry.com in partnership with 
                              the Dorset Record Office.
Comments: Burial scans also have corresponding affidavits for burials in Wool
(for spelling verification & cross reference)
                                            Child Okeford 
                                                                    4 miles SW of Sutton Waldron
Parish Records:    The surviving Parish Records begin in 1656 
Rector:                 The Reverend William Crabb (M.A. Oxford) appointed 2nd Feb 1661-1673
(Handwriting)       Succeeded by John Viners who served 1673-1687
                              Succeeded by Guilielmus Crabb 1687-1747? (CCed online)
Parish Clerks:       Appears to be several since 1661 - unnamed based on various handwriting.
Calendar:              All entries below were written using the old 'Julian Calendar'  
                              This writer has provided Equivalents for the Gregorian Calendar 
                              written in brackets example: baptised 7th Feb 1693 (G 1694).
Digital Images:   Digital Images are courtesy of Ancestry.com in partnership with 
                              the Dorset Record Office.
Comments: Burial scans also have corresponding affidavits for burials in Wool (for spelling verification & cross reference)
 Burial: "Mary SCARDE Widow was buried Jan 29th" (1722)  (G.1723)
                 (Sutton Waldron). Mother of the three brothers below
  Mrs. SCARD buried in wool 13th April 1762.
 An isolated burial in 1762 implies this Mary attracted the respect "Mrs"
 the widow of William 'Skade' who died testate in 1731. 
   “Mm that Martha daughter of Robert Barrett & Martha his wife was privately 
   baptized betwixt one & two of ye clock in ye morning for doing of which I was 
   hastily called out of my bed by Eliz SCARD who made a lye & told me again 
   & again that the child was dying: this was done Feb: 20th."  (1716)

A good example of Nathaniel Napier's handwriting as he speaks in the 1st person. 
Also noteworthy: The father of the alleged 'dying ' infant is the same Barrett family recorded in the 
Indenture in 1703 for "Richard Scard the son of William Scard of  Childe Okeford"  registered Masons 
Co. London. Robert Barrett was buried at Sutton Waldron 11th Jan 1712. Posthumously his son was 
indentured recorded viz:  "Barrett, Henry, son of Robert, citizen and Mason [deceased], to Robert Scard, 
22nd August 1718, Masons’ Company."
  William SCADE sen: (senior:) buried Jan ye 10 (1727) (Child Okeford)
 His son 'William' was confidently literate and died Testate 4 yrs later in 
  1731 also buried at Child Okeford under name SCADE although his Will 
                                                            was signed "William SKADE".  
His widow Mary survived him although his Principal Legatee & executrix was his unmarried 
daughter Sarah. There are many examples where the testator tends to ignore sons who have already 
established themselves in favour of financially vulnerable spinster daughters. Unfortunately there 
is no date of Administration found so far. A Sarah daughter of William & Mary SCARD was bapt 
21st June (1722) at Stourpaine nine years before his death although many Wills have been recorded
written many years prior to the testator's death in security for vulnerable dependants.  He died 
prematurely. 
  Excerpt of the Will of William SKADE of Child Okeford 6th Aug (1728)
  Burials: SKEAD (1701); SKEARD (1708) SKARD (1708) (Sutton Waldron)
               The same family & includes the father of the three brothers. 
  Richard SCADE "of Sutton Waldron" buried 2nd Dec (1708) 
 (Child Okeford)
 This Richard was earlier recorded SKEAD & SCEAD at Sutton Waldron
  John sonne of Thomas SKEAD and Mary his wife was Baptised September 
the 12th 82 (1682) (Sutton Waldron)
  Thomas son of William SCADE buried 11th July (1705)
 This Thomas died aged 16yrs - See baptism next. 


 This is the baptism of this young man in 1688 (G 1689) 
 under the name Thomas SKEAD, same venue
  Walter son of Thomas SKEAD and Mary his wife was baptised 26 Feb (1696)
 (G=1687) (Sutton Waldron)  same family, brother to John & James (below)
Note: many more entries were recorded  for this couple under several variations the latter clearly Scard.
  Joan daughter of William SCEARD baptised September 4 (1693) 
  (Child Okeford) An example of William's  variations. 
  James son of Thomas SKEARD & Mary his wife was baptised  Feb 28th (1693) 
  (G=1694) (Sutton Waldron) introducing the letter 'R' - same family brother 
  to John born 1682 
  Mary SCARD baptised 18th Nov (1686) (Child Okeford)
Richard SCEAD  paid tax on 1 Hearth (1664) (Sutton Waldron) This would have been an average 
house compared to other entries in the Hearth Tax.  The poore were exempt.
   Burial: Mary daughter of Edward SKEAD (1672)  (Child Okeford) 
 
  Richard son of Edward SCEAD baptised October 16th (1666)  
  (Child Okeford)
More Parish entries will be listed on the next page (linked at end) if the reader wishes to continue.  
        
Baptism July 1660: Jone daughter of Edward SCARD (Child Okeford)
Burial Aug 1660: Jone daughter of Edward SCARD (Child Okeford)
 Previous SCADE entries for the same Edward at Swanage with same father 


This Edward Scarde had recorded a child at Swanage (23mSSE Child Okeford) 
Henry CADE son of Edward & Ema baptised 27th Dec 1657  (Swanage)
Henry SCADE son of Edward & Ema buried 14th Feb 1658 (G 1659) (Swanage)
Ema SCADE wife of Edward buried 14th Feb 1658 (G 1659) (Swanage)

Edward ultimately settled at Child Okeford where he recorded five children by his second 
wife who died in 1773 after the birth of a son. A further two sons by a third wife the following 
year were also recorded at the same venue. He was certainly related to Thomas Skead/Scarde
of Sutton Waldron although Thomas he was more likely perhaps his nephew, the latter named
his third son 'Edward' at Sutton Waldron in 1688. There was no record of Edward or indeed the
name Scade/Scard in any variation at Swanage prior or post 1657-1658, the Parish Records 
beginning at Swanage in 1560.  The OPC has also transcribed these records.
The reference to the marriage of William 'Skead' at Iwerne Courtney in 1588 has been removed as it is now considered too tenuous to include here. The parish entry appears to be 'Read' rather than
Skead, however the entry has been retained in the data base for future reference.
Nonetheless the inherit ability to attract a wife from a family of social standing (as in the case of William Skead in 1588 at nearby Iwerne Courtney) was not new to the later generations of more 
commonly known and accepted Scard progenitors in this region.

                    James Scard [c.1735-1796] of Iwerne Courtney (Shroton)  died Testate (over £1,000 cash + estates)  - signs confidently (grandfather of James Scard of Henstridge who was born on the 
                    Testator's Fiddleford Estate)
                           - he married into a considerably successful family.
                    James Scard [1737-1811] of Gosport, died Testate with a moderate Estate
                            - signs his name confidently (brother to Thomas of Southampton)
                            - he married a spouse generating from the successful Jasper Family of Hampshire through the immediate maternal line.
                    Thomas Scard [1737-1824]  of Southampton died Testate with a reasonable fortune comprising mainly real estate (liquid assets unfortunately tied into an unfortunate prior incident)
                            - signs his name confidently (brother to James of Gosport)
                            - he married into considerable wealth.                    
                    William Scard [1753-1829] of Cerne Abbas, Dorset - signs his name confidently. 
                            - he married into a respected family of local status.

These four early progenitors were self made men, undoubtedly with a confident demeanor enough to afford attracting  spouses born to reasonably well off families and/or standing in the local 
community.  This is a considerable achievement when Thomas Scard of Southampton was Indentured at the age of thirteen to a Saddler at Christchurch (1743), his brother James (later progenitor
of the Gosport Branch) to a Cooper in 1742 and that William of Cerne Abbas was orphaned at the age of seven.  James Scard of Shroton made his fortune from his Trade as a Miller.  
Although it is unlikely that they ever personally interacted with each other, it is beginning to unravel that they were all genetically related and owe their ancestry to these small family modules 
in North Dorset. Thomas Scard [1751-1812] Miller of Warminster, Wiltshire, although he too married well and died Testate, is dealt with separately.

Although this transition from Skead culminating in SCARD evolved over a relatively short period in Dorset's history it has still only partially completed its eight century etymological journey.
                                                                                                              
                                                                                                       Ancient Rolls in Dorset

It is unfortunate that the records at the various venues holding the largest population representing the Scard name in its earlier form are limited in their survival compared to other areas 
in Dorset. However several Documents have survived in the earlier Militia Muster and Lay Subsidy Rolls for the whole of Dorset which are in reasonably good condition.

There were only two entries found in the 1569 muster within the whole of Dorset;
1569 Militia Muster (Dorset): Gilb (Gilbert) Skede records he has a harness (Child Okeford)
1569 Militia Muster (Dorset): Wm (William) Skede is recorded as AB = Able Billman =  ) (Child Okeford)
Abbreviations - Transcriber notes: AB was a higher caliber than B i.e. Billman, possibly financially able to provide more that the latter.
Registration was mandatory from the age of eighteen and the William Skead of the 1588 marriage (1 mile East - above) is assumed to have been in his minority at the time of the Militia Muster 
in 1569 but his father perhaps would seem to have been recorded.   Twenty-five years earlier there were several entries found in the Lay Subsidy Rolls [LSR] for the whole of Dorset 1543-1544 
including the assessors opinion of worth i.e. 'the anticipation assessment'. G=Goods - worth in Pounds sterling  (not including land, tools and some jewelry was exempt).  Goods to the value of G18 
was considered wealthy.

1543 LSR: Anticipation Return only - Gilbert Skede Goods G18
1543 LSR: Anticipation Return only - William Skede G4 (Child Okeford)
1544 LSR:  Gilbert Skede Goods G18 - (Child Okeford)
1544 LSR:  William Skede G4 (Child Okeford)  William is missing in the 1545 Return. 
1545 LSR:  Gilbert Skede - Goods G18 - equal wealthiest man at Child Okeford (Child Okeford)  (transcriber notes this entry is under the name Robert Skede* in 1545) 
                    This annotation is interesting in that locals of high standing were called to assist in compiling the return and implies an inadvertent error in that one possibly knew the predecessor of this family 
                    from a prior time or that Gilbert was actually Robert (see 1524 LSR)

A much earlier Lay Subsidy Roll in Dorset appears to record the same family as Skett at the same venue two decades prior.

1524 LSR:  Robert Skett (Transcriber notes alt. Skede) - G16  (Child Okeford)  This is the anticipation return or rather preliminary assessment by appointed assessors. 
1525 LSR:  Robert Skett (Transcriber notes alt. Skede) - G16  (Child Okeford)  This is the final assessment,  which the actual tax paid was calculated. In some cases the previous assessment was 
                    challanged. 
It was first thought that Skett was a predessor of the surname Scott but later Documents confidently establish that the name was in fact Skede.
This Family had undoubtedly held high status in Child Okeford prior to the Reformation. A search of ancient land records in this County is proving a formidable task when many such documents 
including Wills were lost  during WWII . However two centuries prior an earlier Lay Subsidy Roll in Dorset reveals a single ancient entry for this family in the County of Dorset.  

1325 LSR: De Walter Skede taxed 11d at Pamphill  Kynggeston [Kingston Lacey]  12miles NW of Child Okeford

Walter was fairly secure financially with Goods to the value of nearly 14 shillings, the threshold set at 10 shillings under which the considered 'poore' were exempt. The tax was exempt of 
land, tools and certain jewelry items.  The volume of entries for this Name (excluding possible effects of the Bubonic Plague 20 years later) based on male descendants surviving into the 
16th Century could realistically (mathematically) afford only one root family. Walter and his life has been explored extensively on another page.

As demonstrated above, this name has evolved into the 21st Century through several changes.  Another considered variant appearing in Dorset was the Scheard of Shaftesbury who also 
recorded two sons at East Stour in 1590 & 1593.  This family had an alias 'Gater' and were recorded in a document in dispute between brothers for the right to claim the Family's Mansion 
House at the former venue in 1560.  This document has been professionally transcribed and also forms part of the next page on our etymological journey. 

Certainly the Scard Family at Henstridge through their ancestors at Fiddleford & Iwerne Minister would rightfully expect to be represented so close to their cradle and indeed they are
correct.  Through the baptism of John at Sutton Waldron, son of Thomas & Mary Skead of 'Pegg's Mill' (Iwerne Minster) in 1721,  they can claim as their own through Thomas Scard who 
died testate in 1769.  Equally the Cerne Abbas Family descendants would already have seen implications in the baptism of 'Walter Scard' in 1686 with the burials of Walter and his wife 
Rebecca at East Stour in 1744 & 1743 respectively however several other alternative progenitors have since emerged. Equally it is easy to draw a parallel with the Christchurch, Southampton 
& Gosport Family 23miles ESE of Sutton Waldron in the relocation of their cousin Judith and her family discussed in the next segment. 

At first glance it is almost unbelievable that all families appear to unite at this point but the rule of thumb is that although parish records may have since been lost, individuals do leave 
footprints and they did travel outside their cradle. In 1782 one passenger coach boasted an amazing record of only 17 hours from Bristol to London a distance of 120 miles.  A few very early
isolated fragments were found in London but soon disappeared to be supplanted by later generations of these Dorset Families.

From the early LSR one would expect to find some early mention of the name in Somerset, Cornwall, Wiltshire and Hampshire but there is no early evidence of real family activity in these 
regions. The Hampshire Burial Index dating from 1538 and although some villages are lacking there would be assumed to be some early evidence of Scard activity in any variant but no joy
was found prior to the late 18th century. Cornwall is well represented by its Online Parish Clerks also falls into a non activity region, and mounting evidence that Somerset and Wiltshire 
will ultimately be forced to also concede to Dorset as the cradle of the Earliest Scard Families in South West England is imminent. In view of these findings it is also possible that the seemingly
orphaned Skead/Skeard Families from Scotland, Canada and Sth Africa,  may at last find a home when with careful research, Dorset may also embrace these 17th Century Strays.  
 under constructon

Or 
follow the interactive Map below
to explore the Biographies of later, better known ancestors
.
                                                                 Interactive Map 
                                        showing expansion of Early Scard Families
                                                        Click on any icon to Access Information
                A Global Map will be constructed in the near future for immigrating families.  
                                                                         Look for Updates.
                                              = Earliest Settlements. 
                                              = Subsequent early generations 
                                              = Extended Family movements. 


                                            NEWPORT WALES - Moses Scard [1813-1868] descendant of the Cerne Abbas Scard Family - Biography. 

        
                                                                          BATH, WALCOT - Joseph Scard [1799-1851], Butcher.  Lineage uncertain. Expands 3 generations                                                                                            Several Scard Families later settled in London & Kent, from lineages including Gosport, Somerset [Bath] & Southampton. There are four linked here, others may be accessed through the Main Biography IndexLONDON - William Scard [1795-1869], Tailor - of the Gosport Scard Family - Expands 3 Generations
                                                                                                                                                          READING, BERKSHIRE:  4th Generation - James Scard [1800-1879] & wife Jane nee Porter - Linegage generates from the North Dorset Scard Family - Expands 2 Generations -                 LONDON - Edward Scard [1808-1849], Surgeon - of the Eling/Southampton Scard Family - Expands 2 generationsLONDON - John Scard [1764-1838], Solicitor. Of the Eling/Southampton Scard Family - Expands 2 Generations.
                                                                           FROME - SOMERSET:  Isolated Fragment - James Scard & his wife Mary nee Cook  
                                          BRIDGEWATER - Isolated Fragment of Family Activity in the 17h Century                                     WARMINSTER - 2nd generation - Thomas Scard [the younger]  [c.1750-1812] & his wife Felicia nee Hooper - Both died Testate - Expands 2 generations 

                                                                      HENSTRIDGE SOMERSET: Second move for James Scard [1800-1879] & wife Jane nee Porter - Expands 2 Generations  MERE WILTSHIRE. THOMAS SCARD & his wife Jane nee Lawrence.  Expands 4 Generations
                                                                                CANN, SHAFTESBURY: Early Family Fragment. JOHN SCARD & his wife Mary nee Upjohn.  Implies early Family activity in this area.                 
                                                              CERNE ABBAS: 2nd Generation: WILLIAM SCARD & his wife Jane nee Lawrence.  Expands 5 generations.        CHILD OKEFORD, NTH DORSET.  WILLIAM SCARD, yeoman - Fragment showing early activity in the region. IWERNE MINSTER, Nth Dorset. Thomas Scard [c.1709-1770] Died Testate - Expands 5 generations 
                                                                               IWERNE COURTNEY [SHROTON]. 2nd Generation JAMES SCARD [c.1735-1796], Miller. Died Testate. Expands  4 generations.                                         ELING/SOUTHAMPTON - Early Progenitor - THOMAS SCARD [1737-1824] & his wife Susannah nee Bennes. Died Testate . Expands 4 Generations. 
          EXETER DEVONSHIRE: Walter Scard and his wife Rebecca nee Burford.  Early Progenitor of the Cerne Abbas Scard Family - Expands 5 generations                                                                                      RINGWOOD, HAMPSHIRE - Fragments of Family Activity in this region.

                                                               Later family activity in this region.                        POOLE, DORSET - Various early fragments showing Family Activity in this region       CHRISTCHURCH.  Early Fragments showing Family Activity in this region.                           GOSPORT & PORTSEA:  Earlier Progenitor: JAMES SCARD [c.1730-1812], Gentleman. Died Testate] & his wife Elizabeth nee Guthridge. Expands 4 Generations.PORTSEA, HAMPSHIRE - Very Early Activity in this region.
                                                                                                                            COWES, ISLE OF WIGHT - An early Fragment - some activity in this area. 
                                                                         WEST LULWORTH:  RICHARD SCARD [c.1688-1773], husbandman & his wife Hannah. Son Thomas died Testate.