Scard - The First Thousand Years
                                                                                         Scard Family - One Name Study
                                                                                                                            by Judith-Ann S. Adams

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                                                                                                       France
                                                                                                                                                                 Updated 2nd April 2012
              France

Henry James Scard (England)
Mademoiselle Philimene Scard
Captain Scard (France - 1798)
John Scard (Nobility 1674)
Other Reports

                         Italy
Giscard Family Names

 
                                        Scard Family Research in France

   The first instance of Scard Family connections to France is implied in an Excerpt from the Book Wales and Cinema: The First Hundred Years Pg 60 
    by David Berry which appears to have come from the family of Henry James Scard [1859-1917] descended from James Scard & his wife Elizabeth 
    (nee Guthridge) of the original Scard Family at Gosport, Hampshire.  Henry pioneered the early Bioscope the forerunner of the Cinema Industry.
    Excerpt reads:  
   
                       "The Scards, originally from France gained a foothold in the bioscope business 
                          as associates of the .....Henry James Scard (born 1859 married Mary Polly....."

    Subsequent investigations revealed fragmentary evidence of the Name in France.
 Bristol Mercury Monday May 28th 1888
A dispute over a child  by 
Mdlle Philimene Scard

Bell's Weekly Messenger (London) 
Sunday, December 2, 1798; Issue 136.
Submitted by DavidKenny (2009)

Inventaire sommaire des Archives  départementales antérieures à 1790: Archives civiles, série B. De Archives 
départementales de la  Nièvre, Henri Adam de Flamare, H. de Flamare Publié par G. Vallière, 1897 
Translation: 'Brief inventory of the previous regional Archives to 1790:  Civil archives, series B Of regional 
Archives of the Nièvre, Henri Adam of Flamare, O'Clock of  Flamare Published by G. Vallière, 1897' 
Excerpt:
               Reçu des titres de preuve de noblesse par Scard (s septembre 1674). 
Translation: 
               Received titles of proof of nobility by Scard (s September 1674).
Investigations revealed the Prerequisites in France for the above mentioned titles [pre the Revolution [1789]];
               1. nobility of knightly origin (14th c.)
               2. nobility of ancient origin (15th c.)
               3. nobility of origin (16th c.) 
               4. Letters of Patent [from the King] and conferred nobility by Office were accepted in later periods.

The first three categories are collectively called  "noblesse d'extraction", families for which there is [now] no 
trace of ennoblement. The three categories are defined depending on how far back a proven line of descent can 
be traced. The  first category also requires that the first traceable ancestor be a knight. Further refinements 
can of course be made: feudal nobility is made of families whose existence is known in feudal times
 (12th c. or earlier) and whose line of  descent goes back to AD1250 at least. 
There were no Knights recorded bearing this name connected to the Conquest of England in 1066. 
There are no noble houses bearing this 'exact' name in France.
However, after much research it is very likely that the original transcription was an error for Sicard, through 
Sicard, the Lords of Carufel connected to the Kings of France. 
Further reading:  http://lordorlady.blogspot.com.au/2009/06/sgt-jean-sicard-de-carufel-lord.html 
(There are other better Lineage Charts hoped to be displayed soon but at the moment copyright is a problem).
Whether any of the bearers of the Sicard name made their  way to England cannot be proven however although many later Sicard were Protestants and some may have fled France during the 
Huganaut Exodus.  This Calvinistic Ideology gaining momentum  during the Reformation, was in its infancy when Catholic persecution resulted in  the horrific Massacre of Mérindol in 1545.  
Followers fled to many parts  of the globe and those who sought refuge in England found asylum during the  brief reign of Edward VI [1553-1559]. Many of these refugees appear to have initially 
settled  near Kent.  Later Edward VI granted them  the Western crypt of Canterbury Cathedral for worship.  

However it is considered that the name has no connection to the Norman War Lord Gui-scard who waged several campaigns in Italy.
.
                                                                                                                           Normandy - Italy

                                                            There have been several queries relating to a possible connection to the Gui-Scard name 
                                                                                                essentially Robert Giscard (1016-1086).  
                                                                               This has been researched at depth and a connection is doubted. 

                         The Data below is merely general information gathered during the research, displayed for the reader's general interest only

                                                                                                                                                Robert Guiscard   (ges’kar’)                                    
                                                                                                                                                        [c.1016-1085]                

Robert's conquests securing Sicily and Southern Italy under Norman control were second only in Military prowess to William Duke of Normandy who while Robert turned his attention to Italy, 
William, by claimed prior hright subdued the Saxon's in England under Norman control at Hastings defeating Harold in a single day in 1066. William named his first born son 'Robert' 
co-incidentally the namesake of this great Warlord.    
Robert was the sixth son of Tancred of Hauteville, Lord of the small village Haute-ville-la-Guichard near Coutances in Normandy.  His father, of minor nobility nonetheless had fief of six knights.
Several War Lords including Robert’s eldest brother William of Hauterville, who was given the soubriquet 'Bras-de-Fer' or ‘iron-arm’ having entered Southern Italy in the 1030’s accompanied 
also by his brother Drago, through successful Military campaigns held Norman control over Sicily.  The Normans having divided the conquered territories into so may fiefs among their leaders, 
appointed  of them, William Bras-de-Fer to be above the rest as president in the council and captain–general in the field, with title of Count of Apulia. Robert, an impoverished younger son left 
Normandy accompanied by five horsemen & thirty foot-soldiers  joining his brothers in 1046 after spending the early part of his Military career pillaging monasteries and robbing travelers in 
order to pay his men.  Anna Comnena [1083-1153] the famed Byzantine Historian of the 1st Crusade, leaves us her legacy relating to Robert; “This Robert was Norman by descent, of minor origin, 
in temper tyrannical, in mind most cunning, brave in action, very clever in attacking the wealth and substance of magnates. His stature was said to be so lofty that he surpassed even the tallest, 
his complexion was ruddy, his hair flaxen, his shoulders were broad, his eyes all but emitted sparks of fire, and in frame he was well-built ... this man's cry is said to have put thousands to flight. 
Thus equipped by fortune, physique and character, he was naturally indomitable, and subordinate to no one in the world."  

Anna, was of a Noblewoman, well educated and groomed to assume control of her Families Estates.  Her aspirations were foiled at the birth of her much younger brother. Of course Anna was quoting from 
legends taught to her as a child, she being only three years  old at Robert's death.  She wrote her famed works at the age of fifty-five, after being widowed some years prior she had subsequently joined a 
Convent of learning.  She is renown as the earliest female Historian.                 

Robert was known by the soubriquet "Guiscard" meaning 'wise or cunning' allegedly given to him for his shrewdness however the region of his cradle ‘Haute-ville-la-Guichard, the suffix  
'Guichard'  possibly more likely adopted and altered phonetically.  William died soon after Robert's arrival in 1046 and Robert's other brother Drago was proclaimed Count of Apulia with 
Robert as his vassal waging successful campaigns in the provinces of Reggio  & Cosenza, conquering Calabria and went on to Defeat the Saracens in Southern Italy & quell outbreaks in Sicily.
When his brother Drogo was assassinated in 1051, the title of ‘Count of Normandy’ fell to his next elder  brother Humphrey and Robert remained in the service of his highest ranking brother.
That year [1051] Robert married married Aubrée [aka Albérade de Pouille] a kinswoman of a Norman chief of the territory of Benevento who bore him a son, Bohemond, during which time he 
renounced  this manner of life retaining a small contingency of only two hundred horsemen. However on the death of his brother Humphrey in 1057, with many years of effort in his conquests, 
to much to relinquish, Robert caused himself to be elected leader of the Normans in Sicily to the detriment of his young nephews, the two sons of his brother, whose inheritance he appropriated
as rightfully his, thus assuming his place as now 'Duke' of Apulia. He then established his younger brother Roger Guiscard [c.1031-1101] in Calabria in 1058 who had previously joined forces 
with him in the conquest of the region. Roger was also described as an courageous soldier and great Military leader but in contrast to his brother was eloquent and of fine features.  In this year 
[1058] Robert had repudiated Aubrée, to wed the Lombard Sykelgaite, [aka Sikelgaita de Salerno], sister of Gisulf, Prince of Salerno who bore him three sons two of which were named  Roger 
& William and seven daughters.  In contrast to Aubrée, she appears to have been ambitious, actively associated in all his undertakings, accompanying him in his expeditions and persuaded him 
to designate his eldest son by his 2nd marriage, her own son Roger, as his successor to the detriment of his heir apparent, Bohemond. [note:  Many Sites give Bohemond as Robert's youngest son 
by Sykelgaite, despite much evidence to the contrary]   Robert's Military achievements are far too numerous to mention here and can be found readily online, suffice to say in this brief synopsis, 
that after many successful campaigns throughout Southern Italy, the capture of Palermo, besieged readily by Robert and his younger brother Roger, they regained power over militant renegades 
and were firmly entrenched as the Norman Masters of all Sicily.  Roger retained the greater part of the country, but remained his brother's vassal.  Having now reached the height of his power, 
at the age of sixty-four, conceived his dream to undertake  the conquest of the Byzantine Empire. He recovered Corfu and was preparing to capture Cephalonia and embarked for the East, where 
his son Bohemond was carrying on the war against the emperor Alexius Comnenus in the defense of his son-in-law Michael VII of Constantinople defeating Alexius in 1081.  Turning to Epirus 
he defeated the Greeks but on his return to Constantinople he died at Cephalonia after a short illness on the 17 July, 1085 at the age of seventy, heralded as the founder of the Sicilian Monarchy.
To his brother Count Roger, he bequeathed all Sicily and part of the Calabria, with the exception of the city of Palermo, which he had chosen for his own capital. Count Roger of Sicily protected
all his subjects, Christians, Saracens and Jews.  Mirroring the great Greek Alexander, Roger respected all religions and Cultures, even supporting a Mohammedan Sector in his Realm.  He was 
popular with all his subjects.  He died in on the 22nd June 1101 at the age of seventy at Mileto in Calabria and was buried with great affection and ceremony. He was succeeded by his son Roger. 
 To his second son Roger he left the Duchy of Apulia, with Salario and the rest of his continental dominions. Duke Roger of Apulia died at Salerno in 1111 and was succeeded by his son William. 
 Duke William died at Salerno, having no issue in 1127.  Pope Henrius opposed the claim of inheritance by William's cousin Roger [the younger] of Sicily but was defeated.  And to Bohemond 
he gave his Eastern conquests. Bohemond afterwards having joined the great crusade, became the founder of the Kingdom of Antioch. Bohemond fell ill an died in the island of Corfu, at the age
of sixty.