Those who remained in the Colony were of the first to settle 'Free', 
                                            theirs was a decision made with courage.
                                      Those who decided to return to the Motherland, 
                                                       will also be remembered.
                                David Collins writes a Tribute, which would apply to all. 

                         David Collins, 1st Governor of NSW:  18th December, 1791;
                            "On board of the 'Gorgon' were embarked the marines 
                        who came from England in the first ships; as valuable a corps 
                  as any in his Majesty's service. They had struggled here with greatly 
                  more than the common hardships of service, and were now quitting a 
          country in which they had opened and smoothed the way for their successors, 
                 and from which, whatever benefit might hereafter be derived, must be 
                           derived by those who had the easy task of treading in paths 
                                      previously and painfully formed by them."  [1]
Marine Companies
& Divisions in the
18th Century &
           Marines: 'In  practice, Companies were merely Administrative Units reduced to skeleton cadres…. 
                             as men were usually sent to ships in small drafts, the company identity bore no relation 
                             to the composition of detachments aboard ship.' [2]

Excerpt Non Commissioned Ranks of the Royal Marines: National Archives, Kew, Surrey; 
'On 26 April 1755 'His Majesty's Marine Forces' were raised and became a permanent force. They were organized
into fifty Companies, of which twenty were based at Portsmouth, eighteen at Plymouth and twelve at Chatham......... 
In 1763 they were numbered in sequence, with Company No.1 being based at Chatham; No.2 at Portsmouth; No.3 at 
Plymouth; No.4 at Chatham; No. 5 at Portsmouth; No.6 at Plymouth and so on...... This source also gives the availability
of Marine Service Records [3]
Reasons for Settlement at 
Botany Bay:
In the mid 1700’s wages were the low and population levels were exploding.  To deter the growing 
influx of crime, over two hundred minor offences in Britain carried the Death Penalty.  However the jails 
continued to swell and the overload were sent to be accommodated in the hulls of derelict Ships anchored
on the Thames.  The maintenance of these convicted Felons was an ever increasing financial burden on
the Crown. 

With The Americas refusal to accept English convicts [War of Independence 1775-1783], Britain now looked to Africa [4] 
to empty their Goals and the new region in the South Seas, named New South Wales by the Cook expedition in 1770.  

Already having interests in the South Seas, specifically their trade with China and under the threat that the French,
who also had interests in this region, may claim the new continent, the British Government sought to colonize this 
new south land, expanding the Empire and securing a vital and strategic point in the South Pacific. The labour for this
venture would be drawn from their overcrowded Jails.
Whitehall Evening Post. Tuesday 12th  September 1786. Issue 6138.[5]
                                                                  Click on Image to Enlarge.
Selection of Non 
and Incentives
The Non Commissioned Marines chosen to accompany this epic voyage were selected from all three Divisions in 1786, 
the original direction has not been found.  However evidence of this date is found written by Arthur Philip,Commander 
of the Fleet and subsequent 1st Governor of the Colony, who wrote a series of Papers relating to the Voyage and the 
initial few weeks in the settlement.  Published in London in 1790 [1st Edition] under the Title 'Voyage to Botany Bay' 
by Arthur Philip [Online [6]], in which several reports written by Major Ross refer to the Non Commissioned Marines 
[Chapter XIV pp241] and a letter of the Admiralty;

      ' The Right Hon. The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, in a letter dated the 8th  October , 1786, 
        addressed to the commanding officers of each division of the marines, directed them to signify to such
        marines as would make a voluntary tender of their services for Botany Bay, that they should at the 
        expiration of their Station of three years be entitled to their discharge on their return to England, 
        proved their good  behaviour during this Service should have merited such marks of favour; Or that if 
        they preferred it, they should at the time of relief be discharged in New South Wales, and permitted 
        to settle there.'

The Book 'The First Fleet Marines 1786-1796' by John More [7], details 'Special Conditions' offered to Non 
Commissioned Marines as an incentive to volunteer for Duty;
         'Bounty money of two guinea's to be paid to each recruit as a special inducement to join 
          and the daily rate of pay for Private was increased to 8d, plus 6d subsistence, food and 
          clothing allowance' 

The Homeland Newspapers relate that there was no shortage of volunteers from Marine Forces to 
accompany the voyage. The Times [London] Tuesday 24th October 1786 [2]   
                                                                 Click on Image to enlarge
Please Note: England Newspaper Images were downloaded directly from the NSW National Library [Online] 
courtesy of the Gale Group [6].  Online Access is subject to Conditions. I thank them for their contribution in 
unveiling these glimpses into our Nation's History. JSAdams.
1786: Preparations;
Early in 1786 several notices appeared in the London Paper, advertising for Tenders for Ships and Supplies for 
the new Venture. Whitehall Evening Post [London]:  Saturday 2nd September 1786. Issue 6134. [6] 
                                                                  Click on Image to Enlarge.

Ultimately Eleven Vessels selected were as follows;
Two Naval Escorts: HMS Sirius [Flag Ship]; HMS Supply.
Six Convict Ships [by charter];
'Alexander'; 'Charlotte'; 'Lady Penrhyn'; 'Friendship'; 'Prince of Wales'; 'Scarborough'. 
Food & Supply Ships [by Charter]: 'Golden Grove'; 'Fishburn'; 'Borrowdale'.
1786: Preparations;
Public Outcry


Plymouth Division 
speaks out:
Fearing firstly that the men would be brought from Germany to accompany the voyage and that the Officer's now 
struggling on half pay would not be given this opportunity, there was much public outcry. 
British Evening Post [London] 
Thursday 28th Sept. 1786  [2] 
New London  Advertiser:
Saturday October 7 1786  [2] 
A retraction was Published in the Public Advertiser Monday 9th October 1786 [2] 

Umbrage was taken by the Plymouth Division relating to several aspects of the Admiralty's Offer;
The Times: 
Tuesday 24th October 1786.[2]
The Times: 
Monday 23rd October 1786 [2]:
Two more intermittent newspaper items published in 1786;                      
1786: Preparations:
There were several early Publications relating to the selection of Convicts for this Voyage;
One of which state many had Trades and another implied that the Convicts would also be allowed 
to be accompanied by their families! 
Public Advertiser [London]
Friday 29th Sept, 1786, 
Issue 16336 [2]
The Times [London]
Saturday 21st October 1786,
 Issue 561[2]
The Times [London] 
Saturday, Nov. 4, 1786,
Issue: 574 [2]
1787: Arthur Phillip
In April 1787 the final selection for the Officer to Command the Fleet was made; 
Forty-nine-year old Naval Officer Captain Arthur Philip was appointed the task of transportation and settlement 
of the new Colony.

London  Times – 14th April 1787; 
             'The King has also been pleased to appoint Arthur Phillip, Esq; to be Captain-General 
              and Governor in Chief of the Territory of New South Wales.'

Philip was given specific orders to establish a settlement at Norfolk Island 1,058 miles ENE 
of the targeted destination point at Botany Bay, so named by the previous 'Cook' expedition [1770].
To be continued.... UNDER CONSTRUCTION; 
*  Excerpts from the various Journals and Papers written by members of the First Fleet to Botany Bay, 
    specifically relating to Non Commissioned Marines.
*  Individual Information relating to the Marines of the First Fleet to Botany Bay.  
[1] An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales,  Vol. 6: by David Collins - Online
[2] 'Nelson's Navy': Author Philip J. Haythornwaite - Google Books - Online
[3] The National Archives, Kew, Surrey [TNA] - Non Commissioned Ranks of the Royal Marines - Online
[4] 'The Blackheath Connection': Ch.29:  by Dan Byrnes - Online
[5] NSW State Library: Newspapers: 17th-18th Century Burney Collection
[6] Voyage to Botany Bay' by Arthur Philip - Google Books Online